Home > Articles > Security > General Security and Privacy

This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

We Continue to Use Old Thinking

Present systems use vulnerability management models to understand what will happen when the network is attacked. You take your vulnerability information and pop it into the model, and out comes a result that tells you how much "risk" you have of suffering an attack.

Consider a simple model where all you want to do is control the temperature in your house. Using vulnerability management as the basis for your design philosophy, you would start by getting an idea of how much heat your house leaks. The simple way to do this is to have somebody point an infrared sensor at your house and take a picture of the hot spots. This is analogous to having your network scanned for vulnerabilities. Now that you have an idea of where the heat is leaking out, you can plug the holes using better insulation, or, if you're cheap like me, clear plastic and duct tape.

According to the vulnerability management dogma, all you have to do to keep your temperature constant is to take periodic infrared snapshots of your house and fix the discovered leaks that might have popped up. The thinking is that there could have been a storm that tore the plastic over the windows, or worse, somebody could have opened a window and left it open. Therefore, this recurring analysis of your house is needed.

Before we move on, this is in no way intended to be a complete dissertation on the many ways one can model a network, but I believe that a brief description of the most popular methods will help lay the foundation for what we're going to talk about later.

Threat modeling is a way to understand how an attacker would attempt to breach your security. You start by assessing your network and applications the way an attacker would. The first thing you do is scan your network using something like nmap to find out what endpoints are on your network and what applications are running.2 You then drill down into those applications using other tools to look for weaknesses. For example, your scan might have discovered a Web server that hosts a custom application that is supporting the HR benefits service. These types of applications are typically Web-based user interfaces with a database back end. The next step is to use a Web scanning tool such as nikto3 to find out whether the Web server and database are vulnerable to things such as cross-site scripting or Structured Query Language (SQL) attacks.

After you have a list of potential attack methods, you prioritize them based on the value of the target endpoint and the probability that an attack will succeed. Web servers buried deep in your enterprise behind firewalls and layers of networks are obviously less susceptible to external SQL hacking attempts than the systems in your DMZ.4 However, as you can see in Figure 3-1, anything in your DMZ is only one hop away from both sides of the security perimeter.

Figure 3-1

Figure 3-1 A simple pictogram that depicts how close the DMZ is to the Internet and how it can act as a bridge to the internal network.

Conversely, application servers on your DMZ would be the first systems that you fix because they are the most exposed.

Now that you have this list, you can better understand how a hacker might penetrate your network.

If you've been in the security business for more than a week, you've heard the term risk analysis mentioned more than once. Risk analysis is another way of looking at your vulnerabilities and determining how they can be leveraged against your enterprise.

The difference is that the result is expressed as a probability, or, as we say, risk. Now, you're probably saying that risk is a pretty subjective thing, and you are right. There are those who say if you have a vulnerability, it's only a matter of time before it's exploited, and they are right, too.

There are other, more esoteric modeling techniques, but they all pretty much use the same vulnerability assessment methodology as their baseline foundation.5 The problem with this approach is that it is a reactive way of addressing the problem. Now before everyone starts filling up my inbox, the reason I say that it's reactive is because from the time that the endpoint is deployed to the time that you do the scan, you have a vulnerability on your network.

If you start with a vulnerability-based approach, you need to ensure that every single endpoint hasn't been compromised before you're sure you're more secure than when you started. Who's to say that some evil person hasn't already used one of your vulnerabilities to make a nice nest in your network somewhere? Not all hacks are apparent or obvious. As you will recall from Chapter 1, "Defining Endpoints," some hacks are placed on a system for later usage.

Now please don't run off and say, "Kadrich says that threat modeling and risk analysis are useless." Far from it. What I am saying is that although they are indeed useful tools for helping you understand the security posture of your network, they are not the models that are going to solve our endpoint security problem.

However, I am saying that there might be another, more effective way to model the network. It might be a bit unconventional, however.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020