Home > Articles > Operating Systems, Server > Linux/UNIX/Open Source

This chapter is from the book

1.3 The Four Phases of Investigation

Good investigation practices should balance the need to solve problems quickly, the need to build your skills, and the effective use of subject matter experts. The need to solve a problem quickly is obvious, but building your skills is important as well.

Imagine walking into a library looking for information about a type of hardwood called "red oak." To your surprise, you find a person who knows absolutely everything about wood. You have a choice to make. You can ask this person for the information you need, or you can read through several books and resources trying to find the information on your own. In the first case, you will get the answer you need right away...you just need to ask. In the second case, you will likely end up reading a lot of information about hardwood on your quest to find information about red oak. You’re going to learn more about hardwood, probably the various types, relative hardness, and what each is used for. You might even get curious and spend time reading up on the other types of hardwood. This peripheral information can be very helpful in the future, especially if you often work with hardwood.

The next time you need information about hardwood, you go to the library again. You can ask the mysterious and knowledgeable person for the answer or spend some time and dig through books on your own. After a few trips to the library doing the investigation on your own, you will have learned a lot about hardwood and might not need to visit the library any more to get the answers you need. You’ve become an expert in hardwood. Of course, you’ll use your new knowledge and power for something nobler than creating difficult decisions for those walking into a library.

Likewise, every time you encounter a problem, you have a choice to make. You can immediately try to find the answer by searching the Internet or by asking an expert, or you can investigate the problem on your own. If you investigate a problem on your own, you will increase your skills from the experience regardless of whether you successfully solve the problem.

Of course, you need to make sure the skills that you would learn by finding the answer on your own will help you again in the future. For example, a physician may have little use for vast knowledge of hardwood ... although she or he may still find it interesting. For a physician that has one question about hardwood every 10 years, it may be better to just ask the expert or look for a shortcut to get the information she or he needs.

The first section of this chapter will outline a useful balance that will solve problems quickly and in many cases even faster than getting a subject matter expert involved (from here on referred to as an expert). How is this possible? Well, getting an expert usually takes time. Most experts are busy with numerous other projects and are rarely available on a minute’s notice. So why turn to them at the first sign of trouble? Not only can you investigate and resolve some problems faster on your own, you can become one of the experts of tomorrow.

There are four phases of problem investigation that, when combined, will both build your skills and solve problems quickly and effectively.

  1. Initial investigation using your own skills.

  2. Search for answers using the Internet or other resource.

  3. Begin deeper investigation.

  4. Ask a subject matter expert for help.

The first phase is an attempt to diagnose the problem on your own. This ensures that you build some skill for every problem you encounter. If the first attempt takes too long (that is, the problem is urgent and you need an immediate solution), move on to the next phase, which is searching for the answer using the Internet. If that doesn't reveal a solution to the problem, don't get an expert involved just yet. The third phase is to dive in deeper on your own. It will help to build some deep skill, and your homework will also be appreciated by an expert should you need to get one involved. Lastly, when the need arises, engage an expert to help solve the problem.

The urgency of a problem should help to guide how quickly you go through the phases. For example, if you’re supporting the New York Stock Exchange and you are trying to solve a problem that would bring it back online during the peak hours of trading, you wouldn’t spend 20 minutes surfing the Internet looking for answers. You would get an expert involved immediately.

The type of problem that occurred should also help guide how quickly you go through the phases. If you are a casual at-home Linux user, you might not benefit from a deep understanding of how Linux device drivers work, and it might not make sense to try and investigate such a complex problem on your own. It makes more sense to build deeper skills in a problem area when the type of problem aligns with your job responsibilities or personal interests.

1.3.1 Phase #1: Initial Investigation Using Your Own Skills

Basic information you should always make note of when you encounter a problem is:

  • The exact time the problem occurred

  • Dynamic operating system information (information that can change frequently over time)

The exact time is important because some problems are related to an event that occurred at that time. A common example is an errant cron job that randomly kills off processes on the system. A cron job is a script or program that is run by the cron daemon. The cron daemon is a process that runs in the background on Linux and Unix systems and runs programs or scripts at specific and configurable times (refer to the Linux man pages for more information about cron). A system administrator can accidentally create a cron job that will kill off processes with specific names or for a certain set of user IDs. As a non-privileged user (a user without super user privileges), your tool or application would simply be killed off without a trace. If it happens again, you will want to know what time it occurred and if it occurred at the same time of day (or week, hour, and so on).

The exact time is also important because it may be the only correlation between the problem and the system conditions at the time when the problem occurred. For example, an application often crashes or produces an error message when it is affected by low virtual memory. The symptom of an application crashing or producing an error message can seem, at first, to be completely unrelated to the current system conditions.

The dynamic OS information includes anything that can change over time without human intervention. This includes the amount of free memory, the amount of free disk space, the CPU workload, and so on. This information is important enough that you may even want to collect it any time a serious problem occurs. For example, if you don’t collect the amount of free virtual memory when a problem occurs, you might never get another chance. A few minutes or hours later, the system resources might go back to normal, eliminating any evidence that the system was ever low on memory. In fact, this is so important that distributions such as SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server continuously run sar (a tool that displays dynamic OS information) to monitor the system resources. Sar is a special tool that can collect, report, or save information about the system activity.

The dynamic OS information is also a good place to start investigating many types of problems, which are frequently caused by a lack of resources or changes to the operating system. As part of this initial investigation, you should also make a note of the following:

  • What you were doing when the problem occurred. Were you installing software? Were you trying to start a Web server?

  • A problem description. This should include a description of what happened and a description of what was supposed to happen. In other words, how do you know there was a problem?

  • Anything that may have triggered the problem. This will be pretty problem-specific, but it’s worthwhile to think about it when the problem is still fresh in your mind.

  • Any evidence that may be relevant. This includes error logs from an application that you were using, the system log (/var/log/messages), an error message that was printed to the screen, and so on. You will want to protect any evidence (that is, make sure the relevant files don’t get deleted until you solve the problem).

If the problem isn’t too serious, then just make a mental note of this information and continue the investigation. If the problem is very serious (has a major impact to a business), write this stuff down or put it into an investigation log (an investigation log is covered in detail later in this chapter).

If you can reproduce the problem at will, strace and ltrace may be good tools to start with. The strace and ltrace utilities can trace an application from the command line, or they can trace a running process. The strace command traces all of the system calls (special functions that interact with the operating system), and ltrace traces functions that a program called. The strace tool is probably the most useful problem investigation tool on Linux and is covered in more detail in Chapter 2, "strace and System Call Tracing Explained."

Every now and then you’ll run into a problem that occurs once every few weeks or months. These problems usually occur on busy, complex systems, and even though they are rare, they can still have a major impact to a business and your personal time. If the problem is serious and cannot be reproduced, be sure to capture as much information as possible given that it might be your only chance. Also if the problem can’t be reproduced, you should start writing things down because you might need to refer to the information weeks or months into the future. For these types of problems, it may be worthwhile to collect a lot of information about the OS (including the software versions that are installed on it) considering that the problem could be related to something else that may change over weeks or months of time. Problems that take weeks or months to resolve can span several major changes or upgrades to the system, making it important to keep track of the original conditions under which the problem occurred.

Collecting the right OS information can involve running many OS commands, too many for someone to run when the need arises. For your convenience, this book comes with a data collection script that can gather an enormous amount of information about the operating system in a very short period of time. It will save you from having to remember each command and from having to type each command in to collect the right information.

The data collection script is particularly useful in two situations. The first situation is that you are investigating a problem on a remote customer system that you can’t log in to. The second situation is a serious problem on a local system that is critical to resolve. In both cases, the script is useful because it will usually gather all the OS information you need to investigate the problem with a single run.

When servicing a remote customer, it will reduce the number of initial requests for information. Without a data collection script, getting the right information for a remote problem can take many emails or phone calls. Each time you ask for more information, the information that is collected is older, further from the time that the problem occurred.

The script is easy to modify, meaning that you can add commands to collect information about specific products (including yours if you have any) or applications that may be important. For a business, this script can improve the efficiency of your support organization and increase the level of customer satisfaction with your support.

Readers that are only using Linux at home may still find the script useful if they ever need to ask for help from a Linux expert. However, the script is certainly aimed more at the business Linux user. For this reason, there is more information on the data collection script in Appendix B, "Data Collection Script" (for the readers who support or use Linux in a business setting).

Do not underestimate the importance of doing an initial investigation on your own, even if the information you need to solve the problem is on the Internet. You will learn more investigating a problem on your own, and that earned knowledge and experience will be helpful for solving problems again in the future. That said, make sure the information you learn is in an area that you will find useful again. For example, improving your skills with strace is a very worthwhile exercise, but learning about a rare problem in a device driver is probably not worth it for the average Linux user. An initial investigation will also help you to better understand the problem, which can be helpful when trying to find the right information on the Internet. Of course, if the problem is urgent, use the appropriate resources to find the right solution as soon as possible. Did Anything Change Recently? Everything is working as expected and then suddenly, a problem occurs. The first question that people usually ask is "Did anything change recently?" The fact of the matter is that something either changed or something triggered the problem. If something changed and you can figure out what it was, you might have solved the problem and avoided a lengthy investigation.

In general, it is very important to keep changes to a production environment to a minimum. When changes are necessary, be sure to notify the system users of any changes in advance so that any resulting impact will be easier for them to diagnose. Likewise, if you are a user of a system, look to your system administrator to give you a heads up when changes are made to the system. Here are some examples of changes that can cause problems:

  • A recent upgrade or change in the kernel version and/or system libraries and/or software on the system (for example, a software upgrade). The change could introduce a bug or a change in the (expected) behavior of the operating system. Either can affect the software that runs on the system.

  • Changes to kernel parameters or tunable values can cause changes to behavior of the operating system, which can in turn cause problems for software that runs on the system.

  • Hardware changes. Disks can fail causing a major outage or possibly just a slowdown in the case of a RAID. If more memory is added to the system and applications start to fail, it could be the result of bad memory. For example, gcc is one of the tools that tend to crash with bad memory.

  • Changes in workload (that is, more users suddenly going to a particular Web site) may push the system close to the limit of its resources. Increases in workload can consume the last bit of memory, causing problems for any software that could be running on the system.

One of the best ways to detect changes to the system is to periodically run a script or tool that collects important information about the system and the software that runs on it. When a difficult problem occurs, you might want to start with a quick comparison of the changes that were recently made on the system — if nothing else, to rule them out as candidates to investigate further.

Using information about changes to the system requires a bit of work up front. If you don’t save historical information about the operating environment, you won’t be able to compare it to the current information when something goes wrong. There are some useful tools such as tripwire that can help to keep a history of good, known configuration states.

Another best practice is to track any changes to configuration files in a revision control system such as CVS. This will ensure that you can "go back" to a stable point in the system’s past. For example, if the system were running smoothly three weeks ago but is unstable now, it might make sense to go back to the configuration three weeks prior to see if the problems are due to any configuration changes.

1.3.2 Phase #2: Searching the Internet Effectively

There are three good reasons to move to this phase of investigation. The first is that your boss and/or customer needs immediate resolution of a problem. The second reason is that your patience has run out, and the problem is going in a direction that will take a long time to investigate. The third is that the type of problem is such that investigating it on your own is not going to build useful skills for the future.

Using what you’ve learned about the problem in the first phase of investigation, you can search online for similar problems, preferably finding the identical problem already solved. Most problems can be solved by searching the Internet using an engine such as Google, by reading frequently asked question (FAQ) documents, HOW-TO documents, mailing-list archives, USENET archives, or other forums. Google When searching, pick out unique keywords that describe the problem you’re seeing. Your keywords should contain the application name or "kernel" + unique keywords from actual output + function name where problem occurs (if known). For example, keywords consisting of "kernel Oops sock_poll" will yield many results in Google.

There is so much information about Linux on the Internet that search engine giant Google has created a special search specifically for Linux. This is a great starting place to search for the information you want -


There are also some types of problems that can affect a Linux user but are not specific to Linux. In this case, it might be better to search using the main Google page instead. For example, FreeBSD shares many of the same design issues and makes use of GNU software as well, so there are times when documentation specific to FreeBSD will help with a Linux related problem. USENET USENET is comprised of thousands of newsgroups or discussion groups on just about every imaginable topic. USENET has been around since the beginning of the Internet and is one of the original services that molded the Internet into what it is today. There are many ways of reading USENET newsgroups. One of them is by connecting a software program called a news reader to a USENET news server. More recently, Google provided Google Groups for users who prefer to use a Web browser. Google Groups is a searchable archive of most USENET newsgroups dating back to their infancies. The search page is found at http://groups.google.com or off of the main page for Google. Google Groups can also be used to post a question to USENET, as can most news readers. Linux Web Resources There are several Web sites that store searchable Linux documentation. One of the more popular and comprehensive documentation sites is The Linux Documentation Project: http://tldp.org.

The Linux Documentation Project is run by a group of volunteers who provide many valuable types of information about Linux including FAQs and HOW-TO guides.

There are also many excellent articles on a wide range of topics available on other Web sites as well. Two of the more popular sites for articles are:

The first of these sites has useful Linux articles that can help you get a better understanding of the Linux environment and operating system. The second Web site is for learning more about the Linux kernel, not necessarily for fixing problems. Bugzilla Databases Inspired and created by the Mozilla project, Bugzilla databases have become the most widely used bug tracking database systems for all kinds of GNU software projects such as the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). Bugzilla is also used by some distribution companies to track bugs in the various releases of their GNU/Linux products.

Most Bugzilla databases are publicly available and can, at a minimum, be searched through an extensive Web-based query interface. For example, GCC’s Bugzilla can be found at http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla, and a search can be performed without even creating an account. This can be useful if you think you’ve encountered a real software bug and want to search to see if anyone else has found and reported the problem. If a match is found to your query, you can examine and even track all the progress made on the bug.

If you’re sure you’ve encountered a real software bug, and searching does not indicate that it is a known issue, do not hesitate to open a new bug report in the proper Bugzilla database. Open source software is community-based, and reporting bugs is a large part of what makes the open source movement work. Refer to investigation Phase 4 for more information on opening a bug reports. Mailing Lists Mailing lists are related closely to USENET newsgroups and in some cases are used to provide a more user friendly front-end to the lesser known and less understood USENET interfaces. The advantage of mailing lists is that interested parties explicitly subscribe to specific lists. When a posting is made to a mailing list, everyone subscribed to that list will receive an email. There are usually settings available to the subscriber to minimize the impact on their inboxes such as getting a daily or weekly digest of mailing list posts.

The most popular Linux related mailing list is the Linux Kernel Mailing List (lkml). This is where most of the Linux pioneers and gurus such as Linux Torvalds, Alan Cox, and Andrew Morton "hang out." A quick Google search will tell you how you can subscribe to this list, but that would probably be a bad idea due to the high amount of traffic. To avoid the need to subscribe and deal with the high traffic, there are many Web sites that provide fancy interfaces and searchable archives of the lkml. The main one is http://lkml.org.

There are also sites that provide summaries of discussions going on in the lkml. A popular one is at Linux Weekly News (lwn.net) at http://lwn.net/Kernel.

As with USENET, you are free to post questions or messages to mailing lists, though some require you to become a subscriber first.

1.3.3 Phase #3: Begin Deeper Investigation (Good Problem Investigation Practices)

If you get to this phase, you’ve exhausted your attempt to find the information using the Internet. With any luck you’ve picked up some good pointers from the Internet that will help you get a jump start on a more thorough investigation.

Because this is turning out to be a difficult problem, it is worth noting that difficult problems need to be treated in a special way. They can take days, weeks, or even months to resolve and tend to require much data and effort. Collecting and tracking certain information now may seem unimportant, but three weeks from now you may look back in despair wishing you had. You might get so deep into the investigation that you forget how you got there. Also if you need to transfer the problem to another person (be it a subject matter expert or a peer), they will need to know what you’ve done and where you left off.

It usually takes many years to become an expert at diagnosing complex problems. That expertise includes technical skills as well as best practices. The technical skills are what take a long time to learn and require experience and a lot of knowledge. The best practices, however, can be learned in just a few minutes. Here are six best practices that will help when diagnosing complex problems:

  1. Collect relevant information when the problem occurs.

  2. Keep a log of what you've done and what you think the problem might be.

  3. Be detailed and avoid qualitative information.

  4. Challenge assumptions until they are proven.

  5. Narrow the scope of the problem.

  6. Work to prove or disprove theories about the problem.

The best practices listed here are particularly important for complex problems that take a long time to solve. The more complex a problem is, the more important these best practices become. Each of the best practices is covered in more detail as follows. Best Practices for Complex Investigations Collect the Relevant Information When the Problem Occurs Earlier in this chapter we discussed how changes can cause certain types of problems. We also discussed how changes can remove evidence for why a problem occurred in the first place (for example, changes to the amount of free memory can hide the fact that it was once low). In the former situation, it is important to collect information because it can be compared to information that was collected at a previous time to see if any changes caused the problem. In the latter situation, it is important to collect information before the changes on the system wipe out any important evidence. The longer it takes to resolve a problem, the better the chance that something important will change during the investigation. In either situation, data collection is very important for complex problems.

Even reproducible problems can be affected by a changing system. A problem that occurs one day can stop occurring the next day because of an unknown change to the system. If you’re lucky, the problem will never occur again, but that’s not always the case.

Consider a problem that occurred many years ago where application trap occurred in one xterm (a type of terminal window) window but not in another. Both xterm windows were on the same system and were identical in every way (well, so it seemed at first) but still the problem occurred only in one. Even the list of environment variables was the same except for the expected differences such as PWD (present working directory). After logging out and back in, the problem could not be reproduced. A few days later the problem came back again, only in one xterm. After a very complex investigation, it turned out that an environment variable PWD was the difference that caused the problem to occur. This isn’t as simple as it sounds. The contents of the PWD environment variable was not the cause of the problem, although the difference in size of PWD variables between the two xterms forced the stack (a special memory segment) to slightly move up or down in the address space. Sure enough, changing PWD to another value made the problem disappear or recur depending on the length. This small difference caused the different behavior for the application in the two xterms. In one xterm, a memory corruption in the application landed without issue on an inert part of the stack, causing no side-effect. In the other xterm, the memory corruption landed on a pointer on the stack (the long description of the problem is beyond the scope of this chapter). The pointer was dereferenced by the application, and the trap occurred. This is a very rare problem but is a good example of how small and seemingly unrelated changes or differences can affect a problem.

If the problem is serious and difficult to reproduce, collect and/or write down the information from 1.3.1: Initial Investigation Using Your Own Skills. For quick reference, here is the list:

  • The exact time the problem occurred

  • Dynamic operating system information

  • What you were doing when the problem occurred

  • A problem description

  • Anything that may have triggered the problem

  • Any evidence that may be relevant

The more serious and complex the problem is, the more you’ll want to start writing things down. With a complex problem, other people may need to get involved, and the investigation may get complex enough that you’ll start to forget some of the information and theories you’re using. The data collector included with this book can make your life easier whenever you need to collect information about the OS. Use an Investigation Log Even if you only ever have one complex, critical problem to work on at a time, it is still important to keep track of what you’ve done. This doesn’t mean well written, grammatically correct explanations of everything you’ve done, but it does mean enough detail to be useful to you at a later date. Assuming that you’re like most people, you won’t have the luxury of working on a single problem at a time, which makes this even more important. When you’re investigating 10 problems at once, it sometimes gets difficult to keep track of what has been done for each of them. You also stand a good chance of hitting a similar problem again in the future and may want to use some of the information from the first investigation.

Further, if you ever need to get someone else involved in the investigation, an investigation log can prevent a great deal of unnecessary work. You don’t want others unknowingly spending precious time re-doing your hard earned steps and finding the same results. An investigation log can also point others to what you have done so that they can make sure your conclusions are correct up to a certain point in the investigation.

An investigation log is a history of what has been done so far for the investigation of a problem. It should include theories about what the problem could be or what avenues of investigation might help to narrow down the problem. As much as possible, it should contain real evidence that helps lead you to the current point of investigation. Be very careful about making assumptions, and be very careful about qualitative proofs (proofs that contain no concrete evidence).

The following example shows a very structured and well laid out investigation log. With some experience, you'll find the format that works best for you. As you read through it, it should be obvious how useful an investigation log is. If you had to take over this problem investigation right now, it should be clear what has been done and where the investigator left off.

Time of occurrence: Sun Sep 5 21:23:58 EDT 2004
Problem description: Product Y failed to start when run from a cron job.

ProdY: Could not create communication semaphore: 1176688244 (EEXIST)

What might have caused the problem: The error message seems to indicate 
that the semaphore already existed and could not be recreated. 

Theory #1: Product Y may have crashed abruptly, leaving one or more IPC 
resources. On restart, the product may have tried to recreate a semaphore 
that it already created from a previous run.
Needed to prove/disprove: 
  The ownership of the semaphore resource at the time of 		
the error is the same as the user that ran product Y.
	That there was a previous crash for product Y that 			
would have left the IPC resources allocated.

Proof: Unfortunately, there was no information collected at 
the time of the error, so we will never truly know the owner of the semaphore at the 
time of the error. There is no sign of a trap, and product Y always 
leaves a debug file when it traps. This is an unlikely theory that is 
good given we don't have the information required to make progress on it.

Theory #2: Product X may have been running at the time, and there may 
have been an IPC (Inter Process Communication) key collision with 
product Y. 

Needed to prove/disprove: 
	Check whether product X and product Y can use the same 		
IPC key.
	Confirm that both product X and product Y were actually 		
running at the time. 

Proof: Started product X and then tried to start product Y. Ran "strace" 
on product X and got the following semget:

ion 618% strace -o productX.strace prodX
ion 619% egrep "sem|shm" productX.strace
semget(1176688244, 1, 0)  = 399278084

Ran "strace" on product Y and got the following semget:

ion 730% strace -o productY.strace prodY
ion 731% egrep "sem|shm" productY.strace
semget(1176688244, 1, IPC_CREAT|IPC_EXCL|0x1f7|0666) = EEXIST

The IPC keys are identical, and product Y tries to create the semaphore 
but fails. The error message from product Y is identical to the original 
error message in the problem description here.

Notes: productX.strace and productY.strace are under the data directory.

Assumption: I still don't know whether product X was running at the 
time when product Y failed to start, but given these results, it is very 
likely. IPC collisions are rare, and we know that product X and product 
Y cannot run at the same time the way they are currently configured. 

Notice how detailed the proofs are. Even the commands used to capture the original strace output are included to eliminate any human error. When entering a proof, be sure to ask yourself, "Would someone else need any more proof than this?" This level of detail is often required for complex problems so that others will see the proof and agree with it.

The amount of detail in your investigation log should depend on how critical the problem is and how close you are to solving it. If you’re completely lost on a very critical problem, you should include more detail than if you are almost done with the investigation. The high level of detail is very useful for complex problems given that every piece of data could be invaluable later on in the investigation.

If you don't have a good problem tracking system, here is a possible directory structure that can help keep things organized:

<problem identifier>/ inv.txt
			          / data /
  			      / src /

The problem identifier is for tracking purposes. Use whatever is appropriate for you (even if it is 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on). The inv.txt is the investigation log, containing the various theories and proofs. The data directory is for any data files that have been collected. Having one data directory helps keep things organized and it also makes it easy to refer to data files from your investigation log. The src directory is for any source code or scripts that you write to help investigate the problem.

The problem directory is what you would show someone when referring to the problem you are investigating. The investigation log would contain the flow of the investigation with the detailed proofs and should be enough to get someone up to speed quickly.

You may also want to save the problem directory for the future or better yet, put the investigation directories somewhere where others can search through them as well. After all, you worked hard for the information in your investigation log; don’t be too quick to delete it. You never know when you’ll hit a similar (or the same) problem again. The investigation log can also be used to help educate more junior people about investigation techniques. Be Detailed (Avoid Qualitative Information) Be very detailed in your investigation log or any time when discussing the problem. If you prove a theory using an error record from an error log file, include the error record and the name of the error log file as proof in the investigation log. Avoid qualitative proofs such as, "Found an error log that showed that the suspect product was running at the time." If you transfer a problem to another person, that person will want to see the actual error record to ensure that your assumption was correct. Also if the problem lasts long enough, you may actually start to second-guess yourself as well (which is actually a good thing) and may appreciate that quantitative proof (a proof with real data to back it up).

Another example of a qualitative proof is a relative term or description. Descriptions like "the file was very large" and "the CPU workload was high" will mean different things to different people. You need to include details for how large the file was (using the output of the ls command if possible) and how high the CPU workload was (using uptime or top). This will remove any uncertainty that others (or you) have about your theories and proofs for the investigation.

Similarly, when you are asked to review an investigation, be leery of any proof or absolute statement (for example, "I saw the amount of virtual memory drop to dangerous levels last night") without the required evidence (that is, a log record, output from a specific OS command, and so on). If you don’t have the actual evidence, you’ll never know whether a statement is true. This doesn’t mean that you have to distrust everyone you work with to solve a problem but rather a realization that people make mistakes. A quick cut and paste of an error log file or the output from an actual command might be all the evidence you need to agree with a statement. Or you might find that the statement is based on an incorrect assumption. Challenge Assumptions There is nothing like spending a week diagnosing a problem based on an assumption that was incorrect. Consider an example where a problem has been identified and a fix has been provided ... yet the problem happens again. There are two main possibilities here. The first is that the fix didn’t address the problem. The second is that the fix is good, but you didn’t actually get it onto the system (for the statistically inclined reader: yes there is a chance that the fix is bad and it didn’t get on the system, but the chances are very slim). For critical problems, people have a tendency to jump to conclusions out of desperation to solve a problem quickly. If the group you’re working with starts complaining about the bad fix, you should encourage them to challenge both possibilities. Challenge the assumption that the fix actually got onto the system. (Was it even built into the executable or library that was supposed to contain the fix?) Narrow Down the Scope of the Problem Solution (that is, a complete IT solution) -level problem determination is difficult enough, but to make matters worse, each application or product in a solution usually requires a different set of skills and knowledge. Even following the trail of evidence can require deep skills for each application, which might mean getting a few experts involved. This is why it is so important to try and narrow down the scope of the problem for a solution level problem as quickly as possible.

Today’s complex heterogeneous solutions can make simple problems very difficult to diagnose. Computer systems and the software that runs on them are integrated through networks and other mechanism(s) to work together to provide a solution. A simple problem, even one that has a clear error message, can become difficult given that the effect of the problem can ripple throughout a solution, causing seemingly unrelated symptoms. Consider the example in Figure 1.1.

Application A in a solution could return an error code because it failed to allocate memory (effect #1). On its own, this problem could be easy to diagnose. However, this in turn could cause application B to react and return an error of its own (effect #2). Application D may see this as an indication that application B is unavailable and may redirect its requests to a redundant application C (effect #3). Application E, which relies on application D and serves the end user, may experience a slowdown in performance (effect #4) since application D is no longer using the two redundant servers B and C. This in turn can cause an end user to experience the performance degradation (effect #5) and to phone up technical support (effect #6) because the performance is slower than usual.

Figure 1.1

Fig. 1.1 Ripple effect of an error in a solution.

If this seems overly complex, it is actually an oversimplification of real IT solutions where hundreds or even thousands of systems can be connected together. The challenge for the investigator is to follow the trail of evidence back to the original error.

It is particularly important to challenge assumptions when working on a solution-level problem. You need to find out whether each symptom is related to a local system or whether the symptom is related to a change or error condition in another part of a solution.

There are some complex problems that cannot be broken down in scope. These problems require true skill and perseverance to diagnose. Usually this type of problem is a race condition that is very difficult to reproduce. A race condition is a type of problem that depends on timing and the order in which things occur. A good example is a "late read." A late read is a software defect where memory is freed, but at some point in the very near future, it is used again by a different part of the application. As long as the memory hasn’t been reused, the late read may be okay. However, if the memory block has been reused (and written to), the late read will access the new contents of the memory block, causing unpredictable behavior. Most race conditions can be narrowed in scope in one way or another, but some are so timing-dependent that any changes to the environment (for the purposes of investigation) will cause the problem to not occur.

Lastly, everyone working on an IT solution should be aware of the basic architecture of the solution. This will help the team narrow the scope of any problems that occur. Knowing the basic architecture will help people to theorize where a problem may be coming from and eventually identify the source. Create a Reproducible Test Case Assuming you know how the problem occurs (note that the word here is how, not why), it will help others if you can create a test case and/or environment that can reproduce the problem at will. A test case is a term used to refer to a tool or a small set of commands that, when run, can cause a problem to occur.

A successful test case can greatly reduce the time to resolution for a problem. If you’re investigating a problem on your own, you can run and rerun the test case to cause the problem to occur many times in a row, learning from the symptoms and using different investigation techniques to better understand the problem.

If you need to ask an expert for help, you will also get much more help if you include a reproducible test case. In many cases, an expert will know how to investigate a problem but not how to reproduce it. Having a reproducible test case is especially important if you are asking a stranger for help over the Internet. In this case, the person helping you will probably be doing so on his or her own time and will be more willing to help out if you make it as easy as you can. Work to Prove and/or Disprove Theories This is part of any good problem investigation. The investigator will do his best to think of possible avenues of investigation and to prove or disprove them. The real art here is to identify theories that are easy to prove or disprove or that will dramatically narrow the scope of a problem.

Even nonsolution level problems (such as an application that fails when run from the command line) can be easier to diagnose if they are narrowed in scope with the right theory. Consider an application that is failing to start with an obscure error message. One theory could be that the application is unable to allocate memory. This theory is much smaller in scope and easier to investigate because it does not require intimate knowledge about the application. Because the theory is not application-specific, there are more people who understand how to investigate it. If you need to get an expert involved, you only need someone who understands how to investigate whether an application is unable to allocate memory. That expert may know nothing about the application itself (and might not need to). The Source Code If you are familiar with reading C source code, looking at the source is always a great way of determining why something isn’t working the way it should. Details of how and when to do this are discussed in several chapters of this book, along with how to make use of the cscope utility to quickly pinpoint specific source code areas.

Also included in the source code is the Documentation directory that contains a great deal of detailed documentation on various aspects of the Linux kernel in text files. For specific kernel related questions, performing a search command such as the following can quickly yield some help:

find /usr/src/linux/Documentation -type f | 
xargs grep -H <search_pattern> | less 

where <search_pattern> is the desired search criteria as documented in grep(1).

1.3.4 Phase #4: Getting Help or New Ideas

Everyone gets stuck, and once you’ve looked at a problem for too long, it can be hard to view it from a different perspective. Regardless of whether you’re asking a peer or an expert for ideas/help, they will certainly appreciate any homework you’ve done up to this point. Profile of a Linux Guru A great deal of the key people working on Linux do so as a "side job" (which often receives more time and devotion than their regular full-time jobs). Many of these people were the original "Linux hackers" and are often considered the "Linux gurus" of today. It’s important to understand that these Linux gurus spend a great deal of their own spare time working (sometimes affectionately called "hacking") on the Linux kernel. If they decide to help you, they will probably be doing so on their own time. That said, Linux gurus are a special breed of people who have great passion for the concept of open source, free software, and the operating system itself. They take the development and correct operation of the code very seriously and have great pride in it. Often they are willing to help if you ask the right questions and show some respect. Effectively Asking for Help Netiquitte Netiquette is a commonly used term that refers to Internet etiquette. Netiquette is all about being polite and showing respect to others on the Internet. One of the best and most succinct documents on netiquette is RFC1855 (RFC stands for "Request for Comments"). It can be found at http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1855.html. Here are a few key points from this document:

  • Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. This helps you to get an understanding of the culture of the group.

  • Consider that a large audience will see your posts. That may include your present or next boss. Take care in what you write. Remember too, that mailing lists and newsgroups are frequently archived and that your words may be stored for a very long time in a place to which many people have access.

  • Messages and articles should be brief and to the point. Don’t wander off-topic, don’t ramble, and don’t send mail or post messages solely to point out other people’s errors in typing or spelling. These, more than any other behavior, mark you as an immature beginner.

Note that the first point tells you to read newsgroups and mailing lists for one to two months before you post anything. What if you have a problem now? Well, if you are responsible for supporting a critical system or a large group of users, don’t wait until you need to post a message, starting getting familiar with the key mailing lists or newsgroups now.

Besides making people feel more comfortable about how you communicate over the Internet, why should you care so much about netiquette? Well, if you don’t follow the rules of netiquette, people won’t want to answer your requests for help. In other words, if you don’t respect those you are asking for help, they aren’t likely to help you. As mentioned before, many of the people who could help you would be doing so on their own time. Their motivation to help you is governed partially by whether you are someone they want to help. Your message or post is the only way they have to judge who you are.

There are many other Web sites that document common netiquette, and it is worthwhile to read some of these, especially when interacting with USENET and mailing lists. A quick search in Google will reveal many sites dedicated to netiquette. Read up! Composing an Effective Message In this section we discuss how to create an effective message whether for email or for USENET. An effective message, as you can imagine, is about clarity and respect. This does not mean that you must be completely submissive — assertiveness is also important, but it is crucial to respect others and understand where they are coming from. For example, you will not get a very positive response if you post a message such as the following to a mailing list:

To: linux-kernel-mailing-list
From: Joe Blow


Joe Blow
Linux System Administrator

First of all, CAPS are considered an indication of yelling in current netiquette. Many people reading this will instantly take offense without even reading the complete message.

Second, it’s important to understand that many people in the open source community have their own deadlines and stress (like everyone else). So when asking for help, indicating the severity of a problem is OK, but do not overdo it.

Third, bashing the product that you’re asking help with is a very bad idea. The people who may be able to help you may take offense to such a comment. Sure, you might be stressed, but keep it to yourself.

Last, this request for help has no content to it at all. There is no indication of what the problem is, not even what kernel level is being used. The subject line is also horribly vague. Even respectful messages that do not contain any content are a complete waste of bandwidth. They will always require two more messages (emails or posts), one from someone asking for more detail (assuming that someone cares enough to ask) and one from you to include more detail.

Ok, we’ve seen an example of how not to compose a message. Let’s reword that bad message into something that is far more appropriate:

To: linux-kernel-mailing-list
From: Joe Blow
Subject: Oops in zisofs_cleanup on 2.4.21

Hello All,
My Linux server has experienced the Oops shown below three times in 
the last week while running my database management system. I have 
tried to reproduce it, but it does not seem to be triggered by 
anything easily executed. Has anyone seen anything like this before?

Unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address ffffffff7f1bb800
 printing rip:
PML4 103027 PGD 0 
Oops: 0010
CPU 0 
Pid: 7250, comm: foo Not tainted
RIP: 0010:[zisofs_cleanup+2132522656/-2146435424]
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff7f1bb800>]
RSP: 0018:0000010059795f10 EFLAGS: 00010206
RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX: 0000010059794000 RCX: 0000000000000000
RDX: ffffffffffffffea RSI: 0000000000000018 RDI: 0000007fbfff8fa8
RBP: 00000000037e00de R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000000
R10: 0000000000000000 R11: 0000000000000246 R12: 0000000000000009
R13: 0000000000000018 R14: 0000000000000018 R15: 0000000000000000
FS: 0000002a957819e0(0000) GS:ffffffff804beac0(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b
CR2: ffffffff7f1bb800 CR3: 0000000000101000 CR4: 00000000000006e0
Process foo (pid: 7250, stackpage=10059795000)
Stack: 0000010059795f10 0000000000000018 ffffffff801bc576 0000010059794000 
 0000000293716a88 0000007fbfff8da0 0000002a9cf94ff8 0000000000000003 
 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000007fbfff9d64 0000007fbfff8ed0 
Call Trace: [sys_msgsnd+134/976]{sys_msgsnd+134} [system_call+119/124]{system_call+119} 
Call Trace: [<ffffffff801bc576>]{sys_msgsnd+134} [<ffffffff801100b3>]{system_call+119} 
Thanks in advance,
Joe Blow

The first thing to notice is that the subject is clear, concise, and to the point. The next thing to notice is that the message is polite, but not overly mushy. All necessary information is included such as what was running when the oops occurred, an attempt at reproducing was made, and the message includes the Oops Report itself. This is a good example because it’s one where further analysis is difficult. This is why the main question in the message was if anyone has ever seen anything like it. This question will encourage the reader at the very least to scan the Oops Report. If the reader has seen something similar, there is a good chance that he or she will post a response or send you an email. The keys again are respect, clarity, conciseness, and focused information. Giving Back to the Community The open source community relies on the sharing of knowledge. By searching the Internet for other experiences with the problem you are encountering, you are relying on that sharing. If the problem you experienced was a unique one and required some ingenuity either on your part or someone else who helped you, it is very important to give back to the community in the form of a follow-up message to a post you have made. I have come across many message threads in the past where someone posted a question that was exactly the same problem I was having. Thankfully, they responded to their own post and in some cases even prefixed the original subject with "SOLVED:" and detailed how they solved the problem. If that person had not taken the time to post the second message, I might still be looking for the answer to my question. Also think of it this way: By posting the answer to USENET, you’re also very safely archiving information at no cost to you! You could attempt to save the information locally, but unless you take very good care, you may lose the info either by disaster or by simply misplacing it over time.

If someone responded to your plea for help and helped you out, it’s always a very good idea to go out of your way to thank that person. Remember that many Linux gurus provide help on their own time and not as part of their regular jobs. USENET When posting to USENET, common netiquette dictates to only post to a single newsgroup (or a very small set of newsgroups) and to make sure the newsgroup being posted to is the correct one. If the newsgroup is not the correct one, someone may forward your message if you’re lucky; otherwise, it will just get ignored.

There are thousands of USENET newsgroups, so how do you know which one to post to? There are several Web sites that host lists of available newsgroups, but the problem is that many of them only list the newsgroups provided by a particular news server. At the time of writing, Google Groups 2 (http://groups-beta.google.com/) is currently in beta and offers an enhanced interface to the USENET archives in addition to other group-based discussion archives. One key enhancement of Google Groups 2 is the ability to see all newsgroup names that match a query. For example, searching for "gcc" produces about half of a million hits, but the matched newsgroup names are listed before all the results. From this listing, you will be able to determine the most appropriate group to post a question to.

Of course, there are other resources beyond USENET you can send a message to. You or your company may have a support contract with a distribution or consulting firm. In this case, sending an email using the same tips presented in this chapter still apply. Mailing Lists As mentioned in the RFC, it is considered proper netiquette to not post a question to a mailing list without monitoring the emails for a month or two first. Active subscribers prefer users to lurk for a while before posting a question. The act of lurking is to subscribe and read incoming posts from other subscribers without posting anything of your own.

An alternative to posting a message to a newsgroup or mailing list is to open a new bug report in a Bugzilla database, if one exists for the package in question. Tips on Opening Bug Reports in Bugzilla When you open a bug report in Bugzilla, you are asking someone else to look into the problem for you. Any time you transfer a problem to someone else or ask someone to help with a problem, you need to have clear and concise information about the problem. This is common sense, and the information collected in Phase #3 will pretty much cover what is needed. In addition to this, there are some Bugzilla specific pointers, as follows:

  • Be sure to properly characterize the bug in the various drop-down menus of the bug report screen. See as an example the new bug form for GCC’s Bugzilla, shown in Figure 1.2. It is important to choose the proper version and component because components in Bugzilla have individual owners who get notified immediately when a new bug is opened against their components.

  • Enter a clear and concise summary into the Summary field. This is the first and sometimes only part of a bug report that people will look at, so it is crucial to be clear. For example, entering Compile aborts is very bad. Ask yourself the same questions others would ask when reading this summary: "How does it break?" "What error message is displayed?" and "What kind of compile breaks?" A summary of gcc -c foo.c -O3 for gcc3.4 throws sigsegv is much more meaningful. (Make it a part of your lurking to get a feel for how bug reports are usually built and model yours accordingly.)

  • In the Description field, be sure to enter a clear report of the bug with as much information as possible. Namely, the following information should be included for all bug reports:

    • Exact version of the software being used

    • Linux distribution being used

    • Kernel version as reported by uname -a

    • How to easily reproduce the problem (if possible)

    • Actual results you see - cut and paste output if possible

    • Expected results - detail what you expect to see

  • Often Bugzilla databases include a feature to attach files to a bug report. If this is supported, attach any files that you feel are necessary to help the developers reproduce the problem. See Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2

Fig. 1.2 Bugzilla Use Your Distribution’s Support If you or your business has purchased a Linux distribution from one of the distribution companies such as Novell/SuSE, Redhat, or Mandrake, it is likely that some sort of support offering is in place. Use it! That’s what it is there for. It is still important, though, to do some homework on your own. As mentioned before, it can be faster than simply asking for help at the first sign of trouble, and you are likely to pick up some knowledge along the way. Also any work you do will help your distribution’s support staff solve your problem faster.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020