Methods of Security—What You Know and Who You Are
There are two prominent methods used to secure data. The first, what you know, has been used for decades—it's the standard password-security scheme. The basic principle is that only someone authorized to access the protected data would know the password required to access it.
The second emerging method is biometrics, or who you are. The science behind this security method is known as biometrics. Webster defines biometrics as "the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena." In security terms, biometrics is the comparison of biological data against stored data to verify a person's identity. The data are taken from unique areas of the body, such as the pattern of the retina or a fingerprint, to ensure that no two individuals produce the same data.