Home > Articles

📄 Contents

  1. MySQL Products
  2. About the Versions Used for This Book
  3. Performance-Boosting Features from Version 4.0 Onward
  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Performance-Boosting Features from Version 4.0 Onward

MySQL AB excels at rapidly fixing issues and introducing new features to the entire product line. Many of these new features have a significant impact on performance. Unfortunately, for the average overworked, underpaid database developer or administrator, it can be difficult to keep up with all of these new capabilities. In fact, in some cases it’s likely that beneficial upgrades are put off because the administrator is unaware of the advantages of upgrading.

Because this book focuses on advancing MySQL performance, some of the major database speed augmentations provided in MySQL versions beginning with 4.0 are listed. These product enrichments show a clear pattern of continual performance-related improvements over time.

For brevity’s sake, other enhancements that don’t really impact system response are omitted. Internal engine improvements and bug fixes are also skipped, unless they provide direct, controllable access to developers. Finally, note that each of the topics listed in Table 3.1 are covered in the appropriate chapter.

Table 3.1 MySQL Performance-Related Features by Version

Version

Feature

Description

4.0

HANDLER interface

This feature provides a fast interface to MyISAM tables, letting developers directly position and move anywhere within the table, and then operate on rows accordingly.

4.0

FULLTEXT variables

Several server variables give administrators more control over how FULLTEXT indexes are built and managed.

4.0

UNION support

Improved SQL capability also yields potentially better index utilization.

4.0

Row estimation

Two new features (SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS, FOUND_ROWS()) give developers better visibility into costs and expected results from a query.

4.0.1

Query cache

You can cache queries and their results, which adds value to your applications regardless of your chosen storage engine.

4.0.1

Thread control

This feature introduces the innodb_thread_concurrency server setting, improving the speed of parallel operations for the InnoDB storage engine.

4.0.2

Track long queries

This feature adds the long_query_time configuration setting to provide better log tracking of problem queries. Queries that exceed this threshold are logged.

4.0.2

Improved ORDER BY

Indexes are now more efficiently used for additional sorting scenarios.

4.0.3

Faster reads

The added read_buffer_size setting gives administrators more control over sequential read performance.

4.0.4

Smarter loading

This feature reduces the amount of index creation work performed by LOAD DATA INFILE if data is already present in table.

4.0.5

Better concurrency

Four transaction isolation levels are now available for developers to control concurrency.

4.0.5

Deadlock detection

InnoDB now has improved deadlock avoidance and detection algorithms.

4.0.6

Query cache details

The Qcache_lowmem_prunes indicator tells administrators how often contents of the query cache had to be removed because of insufficient memory.

4.0.9

Avoid table scans

Developers can now use the FORCE INDEX syntax to override the optimizer’s query plan, thus going even further to avoid a costly table scan.

4.0.10

FULLTEXT control

Administrators can now define their own lists of words to be ignored in FULLTEXT searches via the --ft-stopword-file option.

4.0.13

MyISAM and threading

New parallel table repair and index creation features (configured via new myisam_repair_threads setting) introduce potential for significant index creation speed improvements.

4.0.13

InnoDB buffer pool

You can now specify how many pages in the InnoDB buffer pool are allowed to be dirty (that is, have altered data or index information) by setting innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct.

4.0.13

Limit thread delay

The new max_delayed_threads variable controls how many threads are allowed to queue to perform their inserts.

4.0.14

Guide optimizer

The max_seeks_for_key setting helps drive the optimizer toward choosing an index-based query plan, even if the index holds very duplicate information.

4.0.14

Slave control

The --read-only parameter for mysqld prevents inadvertent writes to a slave server.

4.0.16

Buffer control

Five new server variables let administrators more accurately allocate buffer memory. Variables include transaction_alloc_block_size, transaction_prealloc_size, range_alloc_block_size, query_alloc_block_size, and query_prealloc_size.

4.0.22

InnoDB deadlocks

Administrators can now tune the new innodb_table_locks session variable to reduce the likelihood of deadlocks.

4.1

MEMORY B-tree index

Database designers can now elect to use a B-tree index on a MEMORY table, instead of the default hash index.

4.1

Windows memory

MySQL now supports the extended (up to 64GB) memory capabilities (AWE) on Windows servers.

4.1

Detailed EXPLAIN

The EXPLAIN query report now provides additional data useful in helping determine if a query is as efficient as possible.

4.1

Better mysqldump

Running mysqldump now disables foreign key checks automatically when generating a load file, helping to speed the reloading process.

4.1

Improved MyISAM

Several new important features for the MyISAM engine are now available. First, administrators can now use symbolic links for MyISAM tables, which lets tables be spread among multiple disk drives if desired.

 

 

Next, key cache performance has been boosted by allowing for midpoint insertions, as well as permitting multiple threads to simultaneously access the cache.

4.1

Temp round robin

Administrators can now configure several directories to serve as temporary storage for MySQL by setting the tmpdir parameter. This can help to balance the disk load among multiple drives.

4.1.1

Key caching/indexes

You can now create multiple, specialized instances of the MyISAM performance-enhancing key cache. The new preload_buffer_size setting lets administrators configure memory when preloading indexes.

4.1.1

Filesort behavior

The new max_length_for_sort_data setting helps MySQL determine what kind of file sort algorithm to use when processing an ORDER BY.

4.1.2

Index enhancements

You can now specify up to 1,000 bytes for a MyISAM table’s index key; you can create up to 64 indexes per table for InnoDB and MyISAM.

4.1.2

Large table support

You can now set MyISAM’s row pointer size (myisam_data_pointer_size), which lets you address very large tables.

4.1.5

InnoDB expansion

The new innodb_autoextend_increment setting lets you control much additional disk space InnoDB requests when growing a tablespace.

4.1.6

Purge control

The innodb_max_purge_lag setting lets you control what happens when there is a significant amount of information to purge from internal InnoDB logs.

4.1.8

Better mysqldump

New parameters now let you use MySQL to generate a point-in-time InnoDB backup.

5.0.0

Index merge

The MySQL optimizer is now able to create query plans that use multiple indexes to satisfy an OR clause.

5.0.0

Stored procedures

You can now create server-side stored procedures, helping to remove workload from clients as well as centralize software development.

5.0.1

Views

Views provide numerous benefits for administrators, including letting them define relationships among multiple tables, specify filter criteria, and present a simpler data interface to developers.

5.0.1

Optimizer tuning

The optimizer_prune_level and optimizer_search_depth settings let you dictate how you want the MySQL optimizer to examine potential query plans. Also, you can use the new Last_query_cost indicator to get an idea of the price of your most recent query.

5.0.2

InnoDB indicators

Many new indicators for InnoDB report on its current status and workload.

5.0.2

View control

The updateable_views_with_limit setting helps prevent a runaway update of a view when LIMIT is specified.

5.0.2

Server-side cursors

This feature lets you define structures to hold retrieved information. Typically used in conjunction with stored procedures, they add significant processing flexibility to your applications.

5.0.2

Triggers

Triggers let you define data-driven events that will kick off activities on the server.

5.0.3

FEDERATED engine

This feature defines table structures and operates upon data in remote locations as if they were local.


  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020