Home > Articles > Security > Network Security

File System Forensic Analysis: PC-based Partitions

This chapter dives into the details of the partition systems used in personal computers from DOS partitions, to Apple partitions, to removable media. Find out how it works in this sample chapter.
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

The last chapter provided an overview of volume analysis and why it’s important. Now we’re going to leave the abstract discussion of volumes and dive into the details of the partition systems used in personal computers. In this chapter, we will look at DOS partitions, Apple partitions, and removable media. For each system, we review how it works and look at its data structure. If you are not interested in the data structure details, you can skip those sections. This chapter also covers special considerations that should be made when analyzing these systems. The next chapter will examine server-based partitioning systems.

DOS Partitions

The most commonly encountered partition system is the DOS-style partition. DOS partitions have been used with Intel IA32 hardware (i.e., i386 / x86) for many years, yet there is no official specification. There are many Microsoft and non-Microsoft documents that discuss the partitions, but there is no standard reference.

In addition to there being no standard reference, there is also no standard name. Microsoft now calls disks using this type of partition system Master Boot Record (MBR) disks. This is in comparison to a GUID Partition Table (GPT) disk that is used with the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) and the 64-bit Intel Itanium-based systems (IA64), which are discussed in the next chapter[Microsoft 2004a]. Starting with Windows 2000, Microsoft also differentiates between basic and dynamic disks. A basic disk refers to either an MBR or a GPT disk, and the partitions in the disk are independent and stand-alone. Dynamic disks, which are discussed in Chapter 7, "Multiple Disk Volumes," also can be either MBR or GPT disks, and the partitions can be combined and merged to form a single, large partition. Basic disks have traditionally been associated with DOS partitions, probably because GPT disks are not yet as common. Therefore, using the current terminology, this chapter covers basic MBR disks. However, we will use the simple term DOS partitions for this book.

DOS partitions are used with Microsoft DOS, Microsoft Windows, Linux, and IA32-based FreeBSD and OpenBSD systems. DOS partitions are the most common but also the most complex partitioning system. They were originally designed in the 1980s for small systems and have been improved (i.e., hacked) to handle large modern systems. In fact, there are two different partitioning methods that are used in this system. This section will give an overview of the partitioning system, show the data structures in the system, show what tools can list the layout, and discuss investigation considerations.

General Overview

In this section, we will examine the DOS partition concepts and boot code location. The data structures are discussed in the following section.

Basic MBR Concepts

A disk that is organized using DOS partitions has an MBR in the first 512-byte sector. The MBR contains boot code, a partition table, and a signature value. The boot code contains the instructions that tell the computer how to process the partition table and locate the operating system. The partition table has four entries, each of which can describe a DOS partition. Each entry has the following fields:

  • Starting CHS address

  • Ending CHS address

  • Starting LBA address

  • Number of sectors in partition

  • Type of partition

  • Flags

Each table entry describes the layout of a partition in both CHS and LBA addresses. Recall that the CHS addresses only work for disks less than 8 GB in size, but the LBA addresses allow disks to be terabytes (TB) in size.

The type field in the partition identifies what type of data should exist in the partition. Common examples include FAT, NTFS, and FreeBSD. The next section has a more comprehensive list of partition types. The type value is used differently by different OSes. Linux, for example, does not care about it. You can put a FAT file system inside of a partition that has a type of NTFS, and it will mount it as FAT. Microsoft Windows, on the other hand, relies on it. Windows will not try to mount a file system in a partition if it does not support the partition type. Therefore, if a disk has a FAT file system inside a partition with a Linux file system type, the user will not see the FAT file system from within Windows. This behavior can be used to hide partitions from Windows. For example, some tools will add a bit to a partition type that Windows supports so that it will not be shown when Windows boots again.

Each entry also contains a flag field that identifies which partition is the "bootable" one. This is used to identify where the operating system is located when the computer is booting. Using the four entries in the MBR, we can describe a simple disk layout with up to four partitions. Figure 5.1 shows such a simple disk with two partitions and the MBR in the first sector.

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.1 A basic DOS disk with two partitions and the MBR.

Extended Partition Concepts

The MBR is a simple method of describing up to four partitions. However, many systems require more partitions than that. For example, consider a 12GB disk that the user wants to divide into six 2GB partitions because he is using multiple operating systems. We cannot describe the six partitions by using the four partition table entries.

The solution to this design problem is what makes DOS partitions so complex. The basic theory behind the solution is to use one, two, or three of the entries in the MBR for normal partitions and then create an "extended partition" that will fill up the remainder of the disk. Before we move on, some definitions may be helpful. A primary file system partition is a partition whose entry is in the MBR and the partition contains a file system or other structured data. A primary extended partition is a partition whose entry is in the MBR, and the partition contains additional partitions. We can see this in Figure 5.2, which has three primary file system partitions and one primary extended partition.

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.2 A DOS disk with three primary file system partitions and one primary secondary partition.

To consider what goes inside a primary extended partition, you should basically forget about everything we have discussed so far. In the MBR, we saw a central partition table that described several partitions. Here we see a linked list of partitions. The basic theory is that we are going to precede every file system partition with data that describe how big the file system partition is and where we can find the next partition. All these partitions should be located inside of the primary extended partition, which is why it must be as large as possible.

A secondary file system partition, also called a logical partition in Windows, is located inside the primary extended partition bounds and contains a file system or other structured data. Secondary file system partitions are equivalent to the partitions that are described in the MBR except that they are in an extended partition. A secondary extended partition is a partition that contains a partition table and a secondary file system partition. The secondary extended partitions wrap around the secondary file system partitions and describe where the secondary file system partition is located and where the next secondary extended partition is located.

Figure 5.3 shows an example of how secondary partitions work. Secondary Extended #1 contains a partition table that points to Secondary File System #1 and Secondary Extended #2. Secondary Extended #2 contains a partition table that points to Secondary File System #2. It also could point to another secondary extended partition, and this process could repeat until we are out of disk space.

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.3 The basic theory and layout behind the secondary extended and file system partitions.

Putting the Concepts Together

Now let’s put these two partitioning methods together. If we need one to four partitions, we can create them using only the MBR, and we do not need to worry about extended partitions. If we want more than four partitions, we must create up to three primary file system partitions in the MBR and then allocate the rest of the disk to a primary extended partition.

Inside the primary extended partition, we use the linked-list partitioning method. We can optimize the linked-list design that I described in the last section by not making the initial secondary extended partition. Instead, put a partition table at the beginning of the primary extended partition. It can describe one secondary file system and one secondary extended partition.

Consider an example. We have a 12GB disk and we want to break it up into six 2GB partitions. We create the first three 2GB partitions using the first three entries in the MBR, and the remaining 6GB is allocated to a primary extended partition, which spans from 6GB to 12GB.

We need to allocate three more partitions using the linked-list method. We use the partition table in the first sector of the primary extended partition, make a secondary file system partition that spans from 6GB to 8GB, and make a secondary extended partition that spans from 8GB to 10GB. A partition table is inside the secondary extended partition, and it has entries for a secondary file system partition that spans from 8GB to 10GB and an entry for another secondary extended partition that spans from 10GB to 12GB. A partition table is inside the last secondary extended partition, and it has an entry for the final file system partition, which spans from 10GB to 12GB. We see this in Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.4 The layout required for a disk with six file system partitions.

As I have described it and as most documents claim, an extended partition table should have, at most, one entry for a secondary file system partition and one entry for a secondary extended partition. In practice, most operating systems will not generate an error if more than two entries are being used. In fact, in July 2003, I released a 160 MB disk image [Carrier 2003] with six 25 MB DOS partitions to the CFTT Yahoo! Groups list (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cftt/). The image had a primary extended partition table with two secondary file system partition entries and one secondary extended partition entry. Some forensic tools properly handled the third partition entry, while others ignored it or claimed that the 25 MB partition was a 1 TB partition. This example shows how something as common as DOS partitions can cause problems with analysis tools.

Extended partitions have special types that are used in their partition table entries. To make this confusing partition scheme even more confusing, there is more than one type of extended partition, and they do not differentiate between primary and secondary extended partitions. The common types of extended partitions are "DOS Extended," "Windows 95 Extended," and "Linux Extended."

Boot Code

The boot code in a DOS disk exists in the first 446 bytes of the first 512-byte sector, which is the MBR. The end of the sector contains the partition table. The standard Microsoft boot code processes the partition table in the MBR and identifies which partition has the bootable flag set. When it finds such a partition, it looks in the first sector of the partition and executes the code found there. The code in the start of the partition will be operating system-specific. Boot sector viruses insert themselves into the first 446 bytes of the MBR so that they are executed every time the computer is booted.

It is becoming much more common to have multiple operating systems on a computer. There are two ways to handle this. Windows handles this by having code in the bootable partition that allows a user to select which OS to load. In other words, the boot code in the MBR executes first and loads the Windows bootable code. The Windows bootable code allows a user to choose a different partition from which to boot.

The other method is to change the code in the MBR. The new MBR code presents the user with a list of options, and the user chooses which partition to boot from. This typically requires more code and uses some of the unused sectors that exist before the first partition starts.


The DOS partition system is complex because each partition table has only four entries in it. Other partition systems discussed later in this chapter and the next have larger partition tables and are, therefore, less complex. The following high-level steps are necessary to list the layout information of a disk with DOS partitions:

  1. The Master Boot Record is read from the first sector of the disk, and the four partition table entries are identified and processed.

  2. When an entry for an extended partition is processed, the first sector of the extended partition is read and its partition table entries are processed in the same manner as the MBR.

  3. When an entry for a non-extended partition is processed, its starting sector and size are displayed. The ending sector address can be determined by adding the starting sector address and the size together and subtracting one.

Data Structures

The previous section reviewed the DOS partition system. This section provides a detailed discussion of the structures that make the system work. If you are not interested in data structures, you can skip this; however, there is an interesting example of extended partitions. This section is organized into three subsections describing the MBR, extended partitions, and show tool output from an example image.

MBR Data Structure

DOS Partition tables exist in the MBR and in the first sector of each extended partition. Conveniently, they all use the same 512-byte structure. The first 446 bytes are reserved for assembly boot code. Code needs to exist in the MBR because it is used when the computer is started, but the extended partitions do not need it and could contain hidden data. The MBR layout in tabular form can be found in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1  Data structures for the DOS partition table.

Byte Range




Boot Code



Partition Table Entry #1 (see Table 5.2)



Partition Table Entry #2 (see Table 5.2)



Partition Table Entry #3 (see Table 5.2)



Partition Table Entry #4 (see Table 5.2)



Signature value (0xAA55)


The partition table has four 16-byte entries. The entries’ structures are given in Table 5.2. Note that the CHS addresses are essential for older systems that rely on them, but are not essential on newer systems.

Table 5.2  Data structure for DOS partition entries.

Byte Range




Bootable Flag



Starting CHS Address



Partition Type (see Table 5.3)



Ending CHS Address



Starting LBA Address



Size in Sectors


The bootable flag is not always necessary. The standard boot code for a system with only one OS looks for an entry whose flag is set to 0x80. For example, if a system has Microsoft Windows on it and the disk is partitioned into two partitions, the partition with the operating system on it (C:\windows, for example) will have the bootable flag set. On the other hand, if the boot code prompts the user to choose which partition to boot from, the bootable flag is not necessary. Although, some boot programs will set the bootable flag after the user chooses to boot that partition.

The starting and ending CHS addresses have an 8-bit head value, a 6-bit sector value, and a 10-bit cylinder value. In theory, either the CHS addresses or the LBA addresses need to be set for each partition, but not both. It is up to the OS and the code that is used to boot the system to determine which values need to be set. For example, Windows 98 and ME use the CHS addresses for partitions in the first 7.8GB of the disk, but Windows 2000 and beyond always ignore the CHS addresses [Microsoft 2003]. Some partitioning tools set both when possible for backward compatibility. The usage of these fields is application-dependent.

The partition type field identifies the file system type that should be in the partition. A list of common partition types is given in Table 5.3. A more detailed list of partition types can be found in Partition types [Brouwer 2004].

Table 5.3  Some of the type values for DOS partitions.








FAT16, 16–32 MB, CHS


Microsoft Extended, CHS


FAT16, 32 MB–2GB, CHS








FAT16, 32 MB–2GB, LBA


Microsoft Extended, LBA


Hidden FAT12, CHS


Hidden FAT16, 16–32 MB, CHS


Hidden FAT16, 32 MB–2GB, CHS


Hidden FAT32, CHS


Hidden FAT32, LBA


Hidden FAT16, 32 MB–2GB, LBA


Microsoft MBR. Dynamic Disk


Solaris x86


Linux Swap






Linux Extended


NTFS Volume Set


NTFS Volume Set
















Mac OSX Boot




BSDI swap




EFI System Partition


Vmware File System


Vmware swap

Notice how many partition types exist for Microsoft file systems in the 0x01 to 0x0f range. The reason is that Microsoft operating systems use the partition type to determine how to read and write data from the partition. Recall from Chapter 2, "Computer Foundations," that Windows can use either INT 13h or the extended INT 13h BIOS routines. The extended INT 13h routines are needed for accessing disks larger than 8.1GB and use LBA addressing instead of CHS. Therefore, the FAT16 0x04 and 0x0E types are the same except that the OS should use the extended routines for the latter type. Similarly, 0x0B and 0x0C types are the normal and extended versions of FAT32 and 0x05, and 0x0F types are the normal and extended for extended partitions [Microsoft 2004b]. The "hidden" versions of these partition types have a 1 instead of a 0 in the upper nibble, and various tools create them.

To illustrate the MBR and the partition tables, we will extract the sectors from an actual system and parse the structures by hand. The system is a dual boot Microsoft Windows and Linux system, and it has eight file system partitions.

The first example is from the first sector of the disk. This output is from the xxd tool in Linux, but similar data can be found using a hex editor in Windows or UNIX. The following command was used in Linux:

# dd if=disk3.dd bs=512 skip=0 count=1 | xxd

The left column is the byte offset in decimal, the middle eight columns are the data in hexadecimal format, and the final column is the data translated into ASCII. The data are from an IA32-based system, which is little-endian and stores numbers with the least significant byte at the lowest address. Therefore, the order of the bytes in the middle columns may need to be reversed. The MBR of the disk is as follows:

# dd if=disk3.dd bs=512 skip=0 count=1 | xxd
0000000: eb48 9010 8ed0 bc00 b0b8 0000 8ed8 8ec0  .H..............
0000384: 0048 6172 6420 4469 736b 0052 6561 6400  .Hard Disk.Read.
0000400: 2045 7272 6f72 00bb 0100 b40e cd10 ac3c   Error.........<
0000416: 0075 f4c3 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  .u..............
0000432: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001  ................
0000448: 0100 07fe 3f7f 3f00 0000 4160 1f00 8000  ....?.?...A´....
0000464: 0180 83fe 3f8c 8060 1f00 cd2f 0300 0000  ....?..´.../....
0000480: 018d 83fe 3fcc 4d90 2200 40b0 0f00 0000  ....?.M.".@.....
0000496: 01cd 05fe ffff 8d40 3200 79eb 9604 55aa  .......@2.y...U.

The first 446 bytes contain boot code. The 0xAA55 signature value can be seen in the last two bytes of the sector (although they are reversed in the output because of the endian ordering). The partition table is in bold and starts with the 0x0001 at offset 446. Each line in the output has 16 bytes, and each table entry is 16 bytes. Therefore, the second entry begins one line below the first entry with 0x8000. Using the structure previously outlined, the four partition table entries are shown in Table 5.4. The values are shown in hexadecimal format with the decimal value in parenthesis of important values.

Table 5.4  The contents of the primary partition table in the example disk image.




Starting Sector





0x0000003f (63)

0x001f6041 (2,056,257)




0x001f6080 (2,056,320)

0x00032fcd (208,845)




0x0022904d (2,265,165)

0x000fb040 (1,028,160)




0x0032408d (3,293,325)

0x0496eb79 (76,999,545)

Using Table 5.4 and the partition type field in Table 5.3, we can guess what type of data are in each partition. The first partition should be for an NTFS file system (type 0x07), the second and third partitions should be for Linux file systems (0x83), and the fourth partition is an extended partition (0x05). The second entry is set to be bootable. The extended partition should have been expected because it was previously mentioned that there would be a total of eight partitions. The disk layout from this partition table is shown in Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.5

Figure 5.5 Disk layout after processing the first partition table in example (not to scale).

Extended Partition Data Structures

Recall that the extended partitions use the same structure in the first sector as the MBR does, but they use it to make a linked list. The partition table entries are slightly different, though, because the starting sector addresses are relative to other places on the disk besides the beginning of the disk. Furthermore, the starting sector of a secondary file system partition is relative to a different place than the starting sector of a secondary extended partition.

The starting address for a secondary file system entry is relative to the current partition table. This is intuitive because the secondary extended partitions work as wrappers around the file system partitions; therefore, they have the starting address relative to themselves. On the other hand, the starting address for a secondary extended partition entry is relative to the primary extended partition.

Let’s step through the example shown in Figure 5.6. It has a primary extended partition that starts in sector 1,000 with a length of 11,000 sectors. Its partition table has two entries. The first is for a FAT file system with a starting sector of 63, which is added to the sector of the current partition table to get 1,063. The second entry is for an extended partition and its starting sector is 4,000. That is added to the start of the primary extended partition, which is sector 1,000, and we get sector 5,000.

Now let’s jump ahead to that secondary extended partition (in sector 5,000). The first partition table entry is for an NTFS file system, and its starting value is 63, which is added to the address of the current partition table and to get sector 5,063. The second entry is for an extended partition, and its starting value is 6,500, which is added to the sector of the primary extended partition and to get sector 7,500.

Figure 5.6

Figure 5.6 Disk with three secondary extended partitions. Note that the starting location of the secondary extended partitions is relative to the start of the primary extended partition, sector 1000.

We’ll do one more round to make sure it is clear. The next extended partition starts in sector 7,500. The first entry is for an EXT3FS file system with a starting value of 63, which is added to 7,500 to get sector 7,563. The second entry is for a secondary extended partition, and its starting value is 9,000, which is added to 1,000 to get sector 10,000.

Return to the actual system that we parsed by hand. The following are the contents of the first sector of the primary extended partition, which is located in sector 3,293,325:

# dd if=disk3.dd bs=512 skip=3293325 count=1 | xxd
0000432: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001  ................
0000448: 01cd 83fe 7fcb 3f00 0000 0082 3e00 0000  ......?.....>...
0000464: 41cc 05fe bf0b 3f82 3e00 40b0 0f00 0000  A.....?.>.@.....
0000480: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  ................
0000496: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 55aa  ..............U.

The four partition table entries are highlighted, and we see that the final two entries are empty. The first two partition table entries are parsed into the contents of Table 5.5 (the partition numbering is continued from Table 5.4):

Table 5.5  The contents of the primary extended partition table in the example disk image.




Starting Sector





0x0000003f (63)

0x003e8200 (4,096,572)




0x003e823f (4,096,575)

0x000fb040 (1,028,160)

Entry #5 has a type for a Linux file system (0x83), so it is a secondary file system partition, and its starting sector is relative to the start of the current extended partition (sector 3,293,325).

3,293,325 + 63 = 3,293,388

Entry #6 has a type for a DOS Extended partition, so its starting sector is relative to the start of the primary extended partition, which is the current partition.

3,293,325 + 4,096,575  = 7,389,900 

The disk layout, as we know it, can be found in Figure 5.7. Before we continue, note the sizes of the two partitions. In the MBR, the primary extended partition had a size of 76,999,545 sectors. In this table, the size of the next secondary extended partition is only 1,028,160 sectors. Recall that the primary extended partition has a size of all the secondary file systems and secondary extended partitions, but the secondary extended partitions have a size that is equal to the size of only the next secondary file system partition plus the size needed for a partition table.

Figure 5.7

Figure 5.7 Disk layout after processing the second partition table (not to scale).

We can continue the example by examining the next secondary extended partition, which is located in sector 7,389,900. Its contents are shown in Table 5.6.

Table 5.6  The contents of the first secondary extended partition table in the example disk image.




Starting Sector





0x0000003f (63)

0x000fb001 (1,028,097)




0x004e327f (5,124,735)

0x000fb040 (1,028,160)

Entry #7 is for a Linux swap partition, so it is a secondary file system, and its starting sector address is relative to the current extended partition, which is sector 7,389,900.

7,389,900 + 63 = 7,389,963

Entry #8 is for a DOS Extended file system, so its starting sector address is relative to the primary extended partition, which is sector 3,293,325.

3,293,325 + 5,124,735 = 8,418,060

The disk layout with the information from this partition table can be found in Figure 5.8. The full contents of the example partition table are given in the next section when we look at tools that print the partition table contents.

Figure 5.8

Figure 5.8 Disk layout after processing the third partition table (not to scale).

Example Image Tool Output

Now that the internal structure of the partition system is known, we will show how some of the analysis tools process them. For those who actually enjoy parsing the structure by hand and never use a tool, you can skip this section. Two Linux tools will be shown here. Other Windows tools, such as full forensic analysis tools and hex editors, also perform this function.

The fdisk command comes with Linux and is different from the tool with the same name that comes with Windows. fdisk can be run on a Linux device or a disk image file generated by dd. The -l flag forces it to list the partitions instead of going into interactive mode where the partitions could also be edited. The -u flag forces the output to be in sectors instead of cylinders. The output of the DOS Partitioned disk that we parsed by hand is as follows:

# fdisk –lu disk3.dd
Disk disk3.dd: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 0 cylinders
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
disk3.dd1            63   2056319   1028128+   7  HPFS/NTFS
disk3.dd2   *   2056320   2265164    104422+  83  Linux
disk3.dd3       2265165   3293324    514080   83  Linux
disk3.dd4       3293325  80292869  38499772+   5  Extended
disk3.dd5       3293388   7389899   2048256   83  Linux
disk3.dd6       7389963   8418059    514048+  82  Linux swap
disk3.dd7       8418123   9446219    514048+  83  Linux
disk3.dd8       9446283  17639369   4096543+   7  HPFS/NTFS
disk3.dd9      17639433  48371714  15366141   83  Linux

We can observe several things from this output. The output lists only the primary extended partition (disk3.dd4). The secondary extended partition in which the Linux swap partition is located is not displayed. This is acceptable for most circumstances because only the primary and secondary file system partitions are needed for an investigation, but it should be noted that you are not seeing all partition table entries.

The mmls tool in The Sleuth Kit provides slightly different information. Sectors that are unused by a partition are marked as such, the location of the partition tables is marked, and the extended partition locations are noted. Using the same disk as we used for the first fdisk example, the following is seen:

# mmls –t dos disk3.dd
Units are in 512-byte sectors
     Slot    Start        End          Length       Description
00:  -----   0000000000   0000000000   0000000001   Table #0
01:  -----   0000000001   0000000062   0000000062   Unallocated
02:  00:00   0000000063   0002056319   0002056257   NTFS (0x07)
03:  00:01   0002056320   0002265164   0000208845   Linux (0x83)
04:  00:02   0002265165   0003293324   0001028160   Linux (0x83)
05:  00:03   0003293325   0080292869   0076999545   DOS Extended (0x05)
06:  -----   0003293325   0003293325   0000000001   Table #1
07:  -----   0003293326   0003293387   0000000062   Unallocated
08:  01:00   0003293388   0007389899   0004096512   Linux (0x83)
09:  01:01   0007389900   0008418059   0001028160   DOS Extended (0x05)
10:  -----   0007389900   0007389900   0000000001   Table #2
11:  -----   0007389901   0007389962   0000000062   Unallocated
12:  02:00   0007389963   0008418059   0001028097   Linux Swap (0x82)
13:  02:01   0008418060   0009446219   0001028160   DOS Extended (0x05)
14:  -----   0008418060   0008418060   0000000001   Table #3
15:  -----   0008418061   0008418122   0000000062   Unallocated
16:  03:00   0008418123   0009446219   0001028097   Linux (0x83)
17:  03:01   0009446220   0017639369   0008193150   DOS Extended (0x05)
18:  -----   0009446220   0009446220   0000000001   Table #4
19:  -----   0009446221   0009446282   0000000062   Unallocated
20:  04:00   0009446283   0017639369   0008193087   NTFS (0x07)
21:  04:01   0017639370   0048371714   0030732345   DOS Extended (0x05)
22:  -----   0017639370   0017639370   0000000001   Table #5
23:  -----   0017639371   0017639432   0000000062   Unallocated
24:  05:00   0017639433   0048371714   0030732282   Linux (0x83)

The ’Unallocated’ entries are for the space in between partitions and for the space between the end of the partition table and the beginning of the first partition. The output of mmls gives both the ending address and the size, so it can be easily used to extract the partitions with dd.

The output of mmls is sorted by the starting sector of the partition, so the first column is only a counter for each entry and has no correlation to the partition table entry. The second column shows what partition table the partition was found in and which entry in the table. The first number shows which table, 0 being the primary table and 1 being the primary extended table, and the second number shows which entry in the table. The sorted output helps to identify sectors that are not partitioned. For example, consider this image:

# mmls –t dos disk1.dd
Units are in 512-byte sectors
     Slot   Start       End         Length      Description
00:  -----  0000000000  0000000000  0000000001  Table #0
01:  -----  0000000001  0000000062  0000000062  Unallocated
02:  00:00  0000000063  0001028159  0001028097  Win95 FAT32 (0x0B)
03:  -----  0001028160  0002570399  0001542240  Unallocated
04:  00:03  0002570400  0004209029  0001638630  OpenBSD (0xA6)
05:  00:01  0004209030  0006265349  0002056320  NTFS (0x07)

In this output, we see that the NTFS partition is in a slot that is before the OpenBSD partition, but the NTFS partition starts after the OpenBSD partition. We can also see that there is no entry ’00:02,’ and the 1,542,240 sectors in between the FAT and OpenBSD partitions are also marked as unallocated.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020