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Process Management

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Process Creation

Process creation in Unix is unique. Most operating systems implement a spawn mechanism to create a new process in a new address space, read in an executable, and begin executing it. Unix takes the unusual approach of separating these steps into two distinct functions: fork() and exec()8. The first, fork(), creates a child process that is a copy of the current task. It differs from the parent only in its PID (which is unique), its PPID (parent's PID, which is set to the original process), and certain resources and statistics, such as pending signals, which are not inherited. The second function, exec(), loads a new executable into the address space and begins executing it. The combination of fork() followed by exec() is similar to the single function most operating systems provide.


Traditionally, upon fork() all resources owned by the parent are duplicated and the copy is given to the child. This approach is significantly naïve and inefficient in that it copies much data that might otherwise be shared. Worse still, if the new process were to immediately execute a new image, all that copying would go to waste. In Linux, fork() is implemented through the use of copy-on-write pages. Copy-on-write (or COW) is a technique to delay or altogether prevent copying of the data. Rather than duplicate the process address space, the parent and the child can share a single copy. The data, however, is marked in such a way that if it is written to, a duplicate is made and each process receives a unique copy. Consequently, the duplication of resources occurs only when they are written; until then, they are shared read-only. This technique delays the copying of each page in the address space until it is actually written to. In the case that the pages are never written—for example, if exec() is called immediately after fork()—they never need to be copied. The only overhead incurred by fork() is the duplication of the parent's page tables and the creation of a unique process descriptor for the child. In the common case that a process executes a new executable image immediately after forking, this optimization prevents the wasted copying of large amounts of data (with the address space, easily tens of megabytes). This is an important optimization because the Unix philosophy encourages quick process execution.


Linux implements fork() via the clone() system call. This call takes a series of flags that specify which resources, if any, the parent and child process should share (see the section on "The Linux Implementation of Threads" later in this chapter for more about the flags). The fork(), vfork(), and __clone() library calls all invoke the clone() system call with the requisite flags. The clone() system call, in turn, calls do_fork().

The bulk of the work in forking is handled by do_fork(), which is defined in kernel/fork.c. This function calls copy_process(), and then starts the process running. The interesting work is done by copy_process():

  • It calls dup_task_struct(), which creates a new kernel stack, thread_info structure, and task_struct for the new process. The new values are identical to those of the current task. At this point, the child and parent process descriptors are identical.

  • It then checks that the new child will not exceed the resource limits on the number of processes for the current user.

  • Now the child needs to differentiate itself from its parent. Various members of the process descriptor are cleared or set to initial values. Members of the process descriptor that are not inherited are primarily statistically information. The bulk of the data in the process descriptor is shared.

  • Next, the child's state is set to TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE, to ensure that it does not yet run.

  • Now, copy_process() calls copy_flags() to update the flags member of the task_struct. The PF_SUPERPRIV flag, which denotes whether a task used super-user privileges, is cleared. The PF_FORKNOEXEC flag, which denotes a process that has not called exec(), is set.

  • Next, it calls get_pid() to assign an available PID to the new task.

  • Depending on the flags passed to clone(), copy_process() then either duplicates or shares open files, filesystem information, signal handlers, process address space, and namespace. These resources are typically shared between threads in a given process; otherwise they are unique and thus copied here.

  • Next, the remaining timeslice between the parent and its child is split between the two (this is discussed in Chapter 4).

  • Finally, copy_process() cleans up and returns to the caller a pointer to the new child.

Back in do_fork(), if copy_process() returns successfully, the new child is woken up and run. Deliberately, the kernel runs the child process first9. In the common case of the child simply calling exec() immediately, this eliminates any copy-on-write overhead that would occur if the parent ran first and began writing to the address space.


The vfork() system call has the same effect as fork(), except that the page table entries of the parent process are not copied. Instead, the child executes as the sole thread in the parent's address space, and the parent is blocked until the child either calls exec() or exits. The child is not allowed to write to the address space. This was a welcome optimization in the old days of 3BSD when the call was introduced because at the time copy-on-write pages were not used to implement fork(). Today, with copy-on-write and child-runs-first semantics, the only benefit to vfork() is not copying the parent page tables entries. If Linux one day gains copy-on-write page table entries there will no longer be any benefit10. Because the semantics of vfork() are tricky (what, for example, happens if the exec() fails?) it would be nice if vfork() died a slow painful death. It is entirely possible to implement vfork() as a normal fork()—in fact, this is what Linux did until 2.2.

The vfork() system call is implemented via a special flag to the clone() system call:

  • In copy_process(), the task_struct member vfork_done is set to NULL.

  • In do_fork(), if the special flag was given, vfork_done is pointed at a specific address.

  • After the child is first run, the parent—instead of returning—waits for the child to signal it through the vfork_done pointer.

  • In the mm_release() function, which is used when a task exits a memory address space, vfork_done is checked to see whether it is NULL. If it is not, the parent is signaled.

  • Back in do_fork(), the parent wakes up and returns.

If this all goes as planned, the child is now executing in a new address space and the parent is again executing in its original address space. The overhead is lower, but the design is not pretty.

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