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This chapter discussed the major challenges that a transport layer protocol faces in ad hoc wireless networks. The major design goals of a transport layer protocol were listed and a classification of existing transport layer solutions was provided. TCP is the most widely used transport layer protocol and is considered to be the backbone of today's Internet. It provides end-to-end, reliable, byte-streamed, in-order delivery of packets to nodes. Since TCP was designed to handle problems present in traditional wired networks, many of the issues that are present in dynamic topology networks such as ad hoc wireless networks are not addressed. This causes reduction of throughput when TCP is used in ad hoc wireless networks. It is very important to employ TCP in ad hoc wireless networks as it is important to seamlessly communicate with the Internet whenever and wherever it is available. This chapter provided a discussion on the major reasons for the degraded performance of traditional TCP in ad hoc wireless networks and explained a number of recently proposed solutions to improve TCP's performance. Other non-TCP solutions were also discussed in detail.

The second half of this chapter dealt with the security aspect of communication in ad hoc wireless networks. The issues and challenges involved in provisioning security in ad hoc wireless networks were identified. This was followed by a layer-wise classification of the various types of attacks. Detailed discussions on key management techniques and secure routing techniques for ad hoc wireless networks were provided. Table 9.4 lists out the various attacks possible in ad hoc wireless networks along with the solutions proposed for countering those attacks.

Table 9.4. Defense against attacks


Targeted Layer in the Protocol Stack

Proposed Solutions


Physical and MAC layers


Wormhole attack

Network layer

Packet Leashes [16]

Blackhole attack

Network layer

[25], [29]

Byzantine attack

Network layer


Resource consumption attack

Network layer

SEAD [26]

Information disclosure

Network layer

SMT [30]

Location disclosure

Network layer

SRP [30], NDM [31]

Routing attacks

Network layer

[19], SEAD [26], ARAN [28], ARIADNE [32]


Application layer

ARAN [28]

Denial of Service


SEAD [26], ARIADNE [32]



ARAN [28]

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