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  1. The Equal Pay Act (1963), the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), the Equal Education Opportunity Act (Title IX), the Equal Opportunity Act of 1972, the Equal Credit Act of 1975, and the landmark EEOC–AT&T agreement had important ramifications for women's (and minorities') access to education, career opportunities, and credit. Corporate affirmative action policies instituted in the 1970s encouraged the recruitment and development of women and minorities into all types of industry sectors, occupations, and positions. Professional schools, including medical, law, and business institutions, also began actively recruiting women.

  1. Catalyst Web site. www.catalystwomen.org/press_room/press_releases/WBD_03_PR.pdf

  1. Center for Women's Business Research. 2003. Key Facts about Women-Owned Businesses.

  1. Stevenson, H. 1983. A Perspective on Entrepreneurship (Harvard Business School Teaching Note 9-384-131).

  1. Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B., & Reynolds, P. D. 1996. Exploring start-up sequences. Journal of Business Venturing. 11:3, 151–166; Kirchhoff, B. 1994. Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capitalism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

  1. More than 60 percent of U.S. businesses are clustered in the retailing, professional and business services segments and have less than 5 employees. More than 75 percent have fewer than 10 employees. Similarly, more than 40 percent of all firms produce less than $500,000 in revenues. Approximately 80% (18.4 million of the 22.9 million businesses in the U.S.) are sole proprietorships, not corporations or partnerships. The majority of these are self-employed individuals who do not have any employees. Women in Business, 2001. Office of Economic Research of the U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; Small Business Economic Indicators for 2002. A reference guide to the latest data on small business activity, including state and industry data. Office of Economic Research of the U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  1. Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., & Hart, M. M. 2001. From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. Academy of Management Executive. 15:1, 64–80.

  1. Small Business Economic Indicators for 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Advocacy.

  1. Inc. 2001, The State of Small Business, 28–29.

  1. National Venture Capital Association Web site. 2003. Industry Statistics. www.nvca.org

  1. Salmon, W. J., & Wylie, D. Calyx & Corolla. Harvard Business School. Case #592035, 11/01/91.

  1. Center for Women's Business Research. 2001. Removing the Boundaries.

  1. Center for Women's Business Research, 2001. Removing the Boundaries.

  1. Center for Women's Business Research, 2001. Removing the Boundaries.

  1. Women in Business, 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Advocacy.

  1. Women in Business, 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Advocacy.

  1. www.springboardenterprises.org/about/default.asp.

  1. Venture capital is the financial capital supplied to young and innovative ventures by private investors who risk their money and receive potential rewards if the new venture succeeds in growing rapidly and becoming profitable. Private investors are referred to as angels, whereas institutional venture capitalists invest and manage money supplied by individual or institutional investors in different companies.

  1. National Venture Capital Association Web site. 2001. DRI-WEFA report. www.NVCA.org (formerly Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates).

  1. An IPO is a sale or distribution of a venture's stock to the public for the first time.

  1. National Venture Capital Association Web site: www.NVCA.org.

  1. CWBR Venture Capital Study. 2001.

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Last Update: November 17, 2020