Home > Articles > Certification > Cisco Certification > CCNP

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Foundation Summary

The "Foundation Summary" is a collection of quick reference information that provides a convenient review of many key concepts in this chapter. For those of you who already feel comfortable with the topics in this chapter, this summary will help you recall a few details. For those of you who just read this chapter, this review should help solidify some key facts. For any of you doing your final preparations before the exam, these tables and figures will be a convenient way to review the day before the exam.

OSPF Routers

The following list identifies the different OSPF routers:

  • Internal router—Within an area, the functionality of the router is straightforward. It is responsible for maintaining a current and accurate database of every subnet within the area. It is also responsible for forwarding data to other networks by the shortest path. Flooding of routing updates is confined to the area.

  • Backbone router—The design rules for OSPF require that all the areas be connected through a single area known as the backbone area or Area 0. A router within this area is referred to as a backbone router. It may also be an internal router or an Area Border Router.

  • Area Border Router (ABR)—This router is responsible for connecting two or more areas. It holds a full topological database for each area to which it is connected and sends LSA updates between the areas. These LSA updates are summary updates of the subnets within an area. It is at the area border that summarization should be configured for OSPF because this is where the LSAs make use of the reduced routing updates to minimize the routing overhead on both the network and the routers.

  • Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)—To connect to the outside world, or to any other routing protocol, you need to leave the OSPF domain. OSPF is an interior routing protocol or Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP); gateway is an older term for a router. The router configured for this duty is the ASBR. Although you can place this router anywhere in the OSPF hierarchical design, it should reside in the backbone area. Because any traffic leaving the OSPF domain will likely also leave the router's area, it makes sense to place the ASBR in a central location that all traffic leaving its area must traverse.

Link-State Advertisements

The five link-state advertisements are as follows:

  • The router link—This LSA states all the links to the router sending out the LSA. The list is of all the neighbors attached to the router. The LSA is flooded to the area.

  • The network link—This LSA is sent out by the designated router and lists all the routers on the segment for which it is the designated router and has a neighbor relationship. The LSA is flooded to the whole area.

  • The network summary link—This LSA is sent between areas and summarizes the IP networks from one area to another. It is generated by an ABR.

  • The AS external (ASBR) summary link—This LSA is sent to a router that connects to the outside world (ASBR). It is sent from the ABR to the ASBR. The LSA contains the metric cost from the ABR to the ASBR.

  • The external link—This LSA is originated by AS boundary routers and flooded throughout the AS. Each external advertisement describes a route to a destination in another autonomous system. Default routes for the AS can also be described by AS external advertisements.

Routing Table Codes

Table 6-5 shows the codes used in the routing table.

Table 6-5 OSPF Routing Table Codes And Associated LSAs

LSA Type

Routing Table Entry

Description

1 Router Link

O

This is generated by the router, listing all the links to which it is connected, their status, their and cost. It is propagated within the area.

2 Network Link

O

This is generated by the designated router on a multiaccess LAN to the area.

3 or 4 Summary Link (between areas)

0IA

LSA Type 3 includes the networks or subnets within an area that may have been summarized and that are sent into the backbone and between ABRs. LSA Type 4 is information sent to the ASBR from the ABR. These routes are not sent into totally stubby areas.

5 Summary Link/External Link (between autonomous systems)

0E1 or 0E2

The routes in this LSA are external to the autonomous system. They can be configured to have one of two values. E1 will include the internal cost to the ASBR added to the external cost reported by the ASBR. E2 does not compute the internal cost—it just reports the external cost to the remote destination.


Command Summaries

This section contains a list of the commands explained in this chapter. This list is not intended to teach the use of the commands, but to remind you of the options available.

Table 6-6 OSPF Command Summary

Command

Description

network network-number wildcard-mask area area-id

This command identifies the interfaces that are running OSPF and places them in the appropriate area.

summary-address address mask [not-advertise][tag tag]

This command consolidates routes into a summary route before injecting them into the external world. Remember that the mask is the subnet, not the wildcard mask. The options to not advertise will suppress routes that match the mask. The tag option is for use with redistribution.

area area-id range address mask

This command is used to summarize the routes at the ABR before injecting them into another area.

no area area-id range address mask

This command disables the configured summarization at the ABR.

area area-id stub

This command turns the area into a stub area. This command must be configured on every router in the area.

area area-id stub no-summary

This command turns an area into a totally stubby area.

area area-id default-cost cost

This configures the cost for the default summary route used for a stub or totally stub area. The default is 1.

area area-id virtual-link router-id

This command creates a virtual link.

show ip ospf border-routers

This command lists the ABR routers in the AS.

show ip ospf virtual-links

This command shows the virtual links and the current parameters.


  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020