Home > Articles > Networking

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

5.4 VRRP over Token Ring

Token Ring has several characteristics that make running VRRP over it difficult.

5.4.1 The Token Ring Problem

Chiefly, there is no generally available multicast mechanism available over old and new implementations of Token Ring. The newer implementations of Token Ring do support multicasting using group addresses, but Token Ring functional address support is the only generally available multicast mechanism for Token Ring. Also, only a limited number of functional addresses are available, and these could collide with use of the same functional address for another purpose.

There are 31 Token Ring functional addresses, each 48 bits long, organized into 17 bits of constant followed by 31 bits, with only 1 bit on to denote multicast. We specifically chose to discuss the Token Ring addresses in both canonical and noncanonical formats. We did this because the authors of the VRRP RFC draft chose to define functional addresses in canonical (normal) format, and we would like to reconcile that with the Token Ring format here for the benefit of the draft readers. In canonical format, the Token Ring address must be read with each octet flipped (the leftmost bit within an octet is the lowest-order bit and the rightmost bit is the higher-order bit). For example, the Token Ring functional address begins with 03 Hex, or 0000 0011 binary, which means the higher-order two bits are set to 1 in the first octet for a Token Ring functional address rather than the lower-order bits as with Ethernet. This scheme is used because the Token Ring standard requires that addresses supplied to or received from Token Ring interfaces are usually laid out in memory, with the bits of each octet in the opposite order from that of Ethernet, that is, with bit 0 in the high-order (leftmost) position within the octet.

The Token Ring functional addresses start with 03:00, and the addresses range from 03:00:00:00:00:80 to 03:00:02:00:00:00. So 03:00:00:00:00:80 would be the first, followed by 03:00:00:00:00:40, followed by 03:00:00:00:00:20, 03:00:00:00: 00:10, etc. In noncanonical format, the Token Ring address range can be re-written as c0:00:00:00:00:01 through c0:00:40:00:00:00.

Out of these 31 functional addresses, the Token Ring architecture reserves only 12 functional addresses, ranging from 03:00:00:10:00:00 through 03:00:02:00:00:00 for user-defined applications (or in noncanonical format c0:00:00:08:00:00 through c0:00:40:00:00:00). Therefore, any protocol configured to use a multicast address must compete for one of these 12 functional addresses. Additionally, the Novell IPX protocol uses the functional address 03:00:00:10:00:00 over Token Ring, leaving 11 functional addresses that could be used by all other protocols including VRRP. In general, Token Ring VRRP users must take care to avoid functional address conflicts and assign an appropriate functional address to VRRP and their other applications.

5.4.2 The Token Ring Solution

Due to this aforementioned problem, the preferred mode of operation over Token Ring will be to use a Token Ring functional address for the VRID virtual MAC address. The VRIDs are directly mapped to Token Ring functional addresses. To minimize the likelihood of functional address conflicts, the draft standard suggests an allocation that begins with the largest functional address and recommends that VRRP choose VRIDs sequentially starting with 1. This allows for 11 virtual routers at any given time, as shown in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1. VRRP Functional Addresses over Token Ring

VRID

Token Ring Functional Address (Canonical)

Token Ring Functional Address (Noncanonical)

1

03:00:02:00:00:00

C0:00:40:00:00:00

2

03:00:04:00:00:00

C0:00:20:00:00:00

3

03:00:08:00:00:00

C0:00:10:00:00:00

4

03:00:10:00:00:00

C0:00:08:00:00:00

5

03:00:20:00:00:00

C0:00:04:00:00:00

6

03:00:40:00:00:00

C0:00:02:00:00:00

7

03:00:80:00:00:00

C0:00:01:00:00:00

8

03:00:00:01:00:00

C0:00:00:80:00:00

9

03:00:00:02:00:00

C0:00:00:40:00:00

10

03:00:00:04:00:00

C0:00:00:20:00:00

11

03:00:00:08:00:00

C0:00:00:10:00:00


Table 5-1 is generated by mapping VRID to functional addresses via the following function in noncanonical format (0x4000 >> (VRID – 1)) for the middle two octets of a functional address. Programmers may be familiar with the use of ">>" as the bit right shift operator. The above statement means taking the VRID, subtracting it by 1, and then applying right shift (VRID – 1) on 0x4000. To illustrate, let us consider a virtual router with VRID 5. 0x4000 can be written in binary as follows: 0100 0000 0000 0000. Applying right shift on this by (VRID – 1) means (5 – 1) = 4. This means right-shift the 1 by 4 locations, yielding 0000 0100 0000 0000. Converting back to hexadecimal yields 0x0400. Now insert this value into the middle two octets of a noncanonical format of the functional address. For example, if we assume a function address format of C0:00:xx:yy:00:00, then we insert the value of 04:00 into locations xx:yy respectively to yield C0:00:04:00:00:00 for VRID 5. Similarly for VRID 8, right-shift of 0x0400 by 7 times would yield 0x0080, which can be inserted into the xx:yy locations to yield C0:00:00:80:00:00.

5.4.3 Problems with Functional Addresses and Workarounds

However, using functional addresses has problems of its own.

The Host to Virtual Router Forwarding Issue

When VRRP runs in a multiple-ring source route bridging environment as shown in Figure 5-6 and the VRRP routers (master and backup) are on different rings, using functional addresses can cause confusion with respect to the Routing Information Field (RIF) when a host is attempting to talk to the virtual router. For example, current master router R1 is on ring 1, and current backup router R2 is on ring 2. Hosts H1 and H2 are on ring 1. The backup router R2 is on ring 2. If R1 fails, R2 will become the master. Now hosts H1 and H2 will need a RIF to send packets over to ring 2 to the new master router R2. But because the router that becomes the active router, R2, is using the same functional address as that of R1, the stations have no way of knowing that they need to send explorers1 to get the new RIF. Therefore it is better to put both active and standby routers on the same ring/bridge segment.

Figure 5-6Figure 5-6. VRRP in a multiple-ring source route bridging environment


The VRRP Advertisement Issue

Functional addresses cannot be used as a MAC-level source address in any packet. Therefore, the VRRP advertisements over Token Ring cannot be sent with the VRRP virtual MAC address as a source address, as is the norm with Ethernet.

Instead the real MAC address, also called the burned-in MAC address, is used in the VRRP advertisements for the source address, while the destination address is set to the VRID functional address. Some older implementations might also use the all-rings broadcast address for the destination MAC address in VRRP advertisements if they cannot support functional addresses, which is inefficient. The VRRP RFC defers to RFC 1469 for what destination address to use in VRRP advertisements; this RFC recommends (but does not mandate) using C0-00-00-04-00-00 as the destination MAC address for all IP multicast traffic. However, because of shortage of functional addresses in general, the destination MAC address is highly configurable, and there is no harm in using the VRID functional address as the destination address in VRRP advertisements as well. Note here that only the VRRP advertisements use the real MAC address as the source. All gratuitous ARPs still use the functional address in the source MAC field. Therefore, from a host's perspective there is still one virtual MAC address, namely, the functional address.

Using the real MAC address as source has its own disadvantage: Proxy ARP cannot function anymore, because a standby router with a different MAC address cannot cover for the lost proxy ARP database of the failed router.

5.4.4 Unicast Mode Operation

Newer Token Ring adapter implementations support nonpromiscuous reception for multiple unicast MAC addresses like Ethernet and thereby avoid both the multicast traffic and the usage conflicts associated with using Token Ring functional addresses. This means that instead of using a multicast mechanism such as functional addresses for the VRRP MAC address, more than one host in a virtual router group can simply register for the standard unicast VRRP MAC address 00:00:5E:00:01:VRID.

However, one important difference exists between unicast mode operation over Token Ring and Ethernet. As Appendix A explains, the ARP request/reply packets from a virtual router on Ethernet have their own MAC address (and need not have the VRRP VRID MAC) in the layer 2 header of the packet. Only the ARP header needs to contain the VRRP VRID MAC in the request or reply. In a unicast mode of operation over Token Ring, even the layer 2 header of an ARP request/reply packet must use the VRRP VRID MAC as the source MAC address. This is necessary because some Token Ring driver implementations keep a cache of MAC address and source routing information independent of the ARP cache, and these implementations will not transmit to a MAC address in a source-route bridged network unless they receive a packet with the same source MAC address in the Token Ring header.

Unicast mode on Token Ring has one limitation similar to the problem outlined in Figure 5-6. If the master and backup routers are on two different source-route bridge segments and there are some host implementations that keep their source-route information in the ARP cache, do not listen to gratuitous ARPs, and listen only to ARPs that they originate, these hosts will not update their ARP source-route information correctly when a failover occurs. As in the previous problem, the only solution is to put all routers with the same VRID on the same source-bridge segment and then use high-availability techniques to prevent that bridge segment from being a single point of failure.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020