Home > Articles

Deploying Hadoop

Learn how to install and deploy Hadoop using commercial distributions and Amazon Web Services (AWS)

This chapter is from the book

Now that you have been introduced to Hadoop and learned about its core components, HDFS and YARN and their related processes, as well as different deployment modes for Hadoop, let’s look at the different options for getting a functioning Hadoop cluster up and running. By the end of this hour you will have set up a working Hadoop cluster that we will use throughout the remainder of the book.

Installation Platforms and Prerequisites

Before you install Hadoop there are a few installation requirements, prerequisites, and recommendations of which you should be aware.

Operating System Requirements

The vast majority of Hadoop implementations are platformed on Linux hosts. This is due to a number of reasons:

  • The Hadoop project, although cross-platform in principle, was originally targeted at Linux. It was several years after the initial release that a Windows-compatible distribution was introduced.

  • Many of the commercial vendors only support Linux.

  • Many other projects in the open source and Hadoop ecosystem have compatibility issues with non-Linux platforms.

That said there are options for installing Hadoop on Windows, should this be your platform of choice. We will use Linux for all of our exercises and examples in this book, but consult the documentation for your preferred Hadoop distribution for Windows installation and support information if required.

If you are using Linux, choose a distribution you are comfortable with. All major distributions are supported (Red Hat, Centos, Ubuntu, SLES, etc.). You can even mix distributions if appropriate; for instance, master nodes running Red Hat and slave nodes running Ubuntu.

Hardware Requirements

Although there are no hard and fast requirements, there are some general heuristics used in sizing instances, or hosts, appropriately for roles within a Hadoop cluster. First, you need to distinguish between master and slave node instances, and their requirements.

Master Nodes

A Hadoop cluster relies on its master nodes, which host the NameNode and ResourceManager, to operate, although you can implement high availability for each subsystem as I discussed in the last hour. Failure and failover of these components is not desired. Furthermore, the master node processes, particularly the NameNode, require a large amount of memory to operate efficiently, as you will appreciate in the next hour when we dive into the internals of HDFS. Therefore, when specifying hardware requirements the following guidelines can be used for medium to large-scale production Hadoop implementations:

  • 16 or more CPU cores (preferably 32)

  • 128GB or more RAM (preferably 256GB)

  • RAID Hard Drive Configuration (preferably with hot-swappable drives)

  • Redundant power supplies

  • Bonded Gigabit Ethernet or 10Gigabit Ethernet

This is only a guide, and as technology moves on quickly, these recommendations will change as well. The bottom line is that you need carrier class hardware with as much CPU and memory capacity as you can get!

Slave Nodes

Slave nodes do the actual work in Hadoop, both for processing and storage so they will benefit from more CPU and memory—physical memory, not virtual memory. That said, slave nodes are designed with the expectation of failure, which is one of the reasons blocks are replicated in HDFS. Slave nodes can also be scaled out linearly. For instance, you can simply add more nodes to add more aggregate storage or processing capacity to the cluster, which you cannot do with master nodes. With this in mind, economic scalability is the objective when it comes to slave nodes. The following is a guide for slave nodes for a well-subscribed, computationally intensive Hadoop cluster; for instance, a cluster hosting machine learning and in memory processing using Spark.

  • 16-32 CPU cores

  • 64-512 GB of RAM

  • 12-24 1-4 TB hard disks in a JBOD Configuration

Slave nodes are designed to be deployed on commodity-class hardware, and yet while they still need ample processing power in the form of CPU cores and memory, as they will be executing computational and data transformation tasks, they don’t require the same degree of fault tolerance that master nodes do.

Networking Considerations

Fully distributed Hadoop clusters are very chatty, with control messages, status updates and heartbeats, block reports, data shuffling, and block replication, and there is often heavy network utilization between nodes of the cluster. If you are deploying Hadoop on-premise, you should always deploy Hadoop clusters on private subnets with dedicated switches. If you are using multiple racks for your Hadoop cluster (you will learn more about this in Hour 21, “Understanding Advanced HDFS”), you should consider redundant core and “top of rack” switches.

Hostname resolution is essential between nodes of a Hadoop cluster, so both forward and reverse DNS lookups must work correctly between each node (master-slave and slave-slave) for Hadoop to function. Either DNS or a hosts files can be used for resolution. IPv6 should also be disabled on all hosts in the cluster.

Time synchronization between nodes of the cluster is essential as well, as some components, such as Kerberos, which is discussed in Hour 22, “Securing Hadoop,” rely on this being the case. It is recommended you use ntp (Network Time Protocol) to keep clocks synchronized between all nodes.

Software Requirements

As discussed, Hadoop is almost entirely written in Java and compiled to run in a Java Runtime Environment (JRE); therefore Java is a prerequisite to installing Hadoop. Current prerequisites include:

  • Java Runtime Envrionment (JRE) 1.7 or above

  • Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.7 or above—required if you will be compiling Java classes such as MapReduce applications

Other ecosystem projects will have their specific prerequisites; for instance, Apache Spark requires Scala and Python as well, so you should always refer to the documentation for these specific projects.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020