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3.4 Slightly Dynamic Pages

Now that we’ve created the actions and views for some static pages, we’ll make them slightly dynamic by adding some content that changes on a per-page basis: we’ll have the title of each page change to reflect its content. Whether a changing title represents truly dynamic content is debatable, but in any case it lays the necessary foundation for unambiguously dynamic content in Chapter 7.

Our plan is to edit the Home, Help, and About pages to make page titles that change on each page. This will involve using the <title> tag in our page views. Most browsers display the contents of the title tag at the top of the browser window, and it is also important for search-engine optimization. We’ll be using the full “Red, Green, Refactor” cycle: first by adding simple tests for our page titles (RED), then by adding titles to each of our three pages (GREEN), and finally using a layout file to eliminate duplication (Refactor). By the end of this section, all three of our static pages will have titles of the form “<page name> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App”, where the first part of the title will vary depending on the page (Table 3.2).

Table 3.2: The (mostly) static pages for the sample app.

Page

URL

Base title

Variable title

Home

/static_pages/home

"Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"

"Home"

Help

/static_pages/help

"Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"

"Help"

About

/static_pages/about

"Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"

"About"

The rails new command (Listing 3.1) creates a layout file by default, but it’s instructive to ignore it initially, which we can do by changing its name:

$ mv app/views/layouts/application.html.erb layout_file    # temporary change

You wouldn’t normally do this in a real application, but it’s easier to understand the purpose of the layout file if we start by disabling it.

3.4.1 Testing Titles (Red)

To add page titles, we need to learn (or review) the structure of a typical web page, which takes the form shown in Listing 3.23. (This is covered in much more depth in Learn Enough HTML to Be Dangerous.)

Listing 3.23: The HTML structure of a typical web page.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>Greeting</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>Hello, world!</p>
  </body>
</html>

The structure in Listing 3.23 includes a document type, or doctype, declaration at the top to tell browsers which version of HTML we’re using (in this case, HTML5);10 a head section, in this case with “Greeting” inside a title tag; and a body section, in this case with “Hello, world!” inside a p (paragraph) tag. (The indentation is optional— HTML is not sensitive to whitespace, and ignores both tabs and spaces—but it makes the document’s structure easier to see.)

We’ll write simple tests for each of the titles in Table 3.2 by combining the tests in Listing 3.15 with the assert_select method, which lets us test for the presence of a particular HTML tag (sometimes called a “selector”, hence the name):11

assert_select "title", "Home | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"

In particular, the code above checks for the presence of a <title> tag containing the string “Home | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App”. Applying this idea to all three static pages gives the tests shown in Listing 3.24.

Listing 3.24: The Static Pages controller test with title tests. RED
test/controllers/static_pages_controller_test.rb

require 'test_helper'

class StaticPagesControllerTest < ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest

  test "should get home" do
    get static_pages_home_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "Home | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"
  end

  test "should get help" do
    get static_pages_help_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "Help | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"
  end

  test "should get about" do
    get static_pages_about_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "About | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"
  end
end

With the tests from Listing 3.24 in place, you should verify that the test suite is currently RED:

Listing 3.25: RED

$ rails test
3 tests, 6 assertions, 3 failures, 0 errors, 0 skips

3.4.2 Adding Page Titles (Green)

Now we’ll add a title to each page, getting the tests from Section 3.4.1 to pass in the process. Applying the basic HTML structure from Listing 3.23 to the custom Home page from Listing 3.11 yields Listing 3.26.

Listing 3.26: The view for the Home page with full HTML structure. RED
app/views/static_pages/home.html.erb

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>Home | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Sample App</h1>
    <p>
      This is the home page for the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a>
      sample application.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

The corresponding web page appears in Figure 3.6.12

Figure 3.6

Figure 3.6: The Home page with a title.

Following this model for the Help page (Listing 3.12) and the About page (Listing 3.21) yields the code in Listing 3.27 and Listing 3.28.

Listing 3.27: The view for the Help page with full HTML structure. RED
app/views/static_pages/help.html.erb

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>Help | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Help</h1>
    <p>
      Get help on the Ruby on Rails Tutorial at the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/help">Rails Tutorial help
      page</a>.
      To get help on this sample app, see the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book"><em>Ruby on Rails
      Tutorial</em> book</a>.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

Listing 3.28: The view for the About page with full HTML structure. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/about.html.erb

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>About | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>About</h1>
    <p>
      The <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/"><em>Ruby on Rails
      Tutorial</em></a> is a
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book">book</a> and
      <a href="http://screencasts.railstutorial.org/">screencast series</a>
      to teach web development with
      <a href="http://rubyonrails.org/">Ruby on Rails</a>.
      This is the sample application for the tutorial.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

At this point, the test suite should be back to GREEN:

Listing 3.29: GREEN

$ rails test
3 tests, 6 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors, 0 skips

Exercises

Solutions to exercises are available for free at railstutorial.org/aw-solutions with any Rails Tutorial purchase. To see other people’s answers and to record your own, join the Learn Enough Society at learnenough.com/society.

Beginning in this section, we’ll start making modifications to the applications in the exercises that won’t generally be reflected in future code listings. The reason is so that the text makes sense to readers who don’t complete the exercises, but as a result your code will diverge from the main text if you do solve them. Learning to resolve small discrepancies like this is an excellent example of technical sophistication (Box 1.1).

  1. You may have noticed some repetition in the Static Pages controller test (Listing 3.24). In particular, the base title, “Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App”, is the same for every title test. Using the special function setup, which is automatically run before every test, verify that the tests in Listing 3.30 are still GREEN. (Listing 3.30 uses an instance variable, seen briefly in Section 2.2.2 and covered further in Section 4.4.5, combined with string interpolation, which is covered further in Section 4.2.2.)

Listing 3.30: The Static Pages controller test with a base title. GREEN
test/controllers/static_pages_controller_test.rb

require 'test_helper'

class StaticPagesControllerTest < ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest
  def setup
    @base_title = "Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App"
  end

  test "should get home" do
    get static_pages_home_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "Home | #{@base_title}"
  end

  test "should get help" do
    get static_pages_help_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "Help | #{@base_title}"
  end

  test "should get about" do
    get static_pages_about_url
    assert_response :success
    assert_select "title", "About | #{@base_title}"
  end
end

3.4.3 Layouts and Embedded Ruby (Refactor)

We’ve achieved a lot already in this section, generating three valid pages using Rails controllers and actions, but they are purely static HTML and hence don’t show off the power of Rails. Moreover, they suffer from terrible duplication:

  • The page titles are almost (but not quite) exactly the same.

  • “Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App” is common to all three titles.

  • The entire HTML skeleton structure is repeated on each page.

This repeated code is a violation of the important “Don’t Repeat Yourself” (DRY) principle; in this section we’ll “DRY out our code” by removing the repetition. At the end, we’ll re-run the tests from Section 3.4.2 to verify that the titles are still correct.

Paradoxically, we’ll take the first step toward eliminating duplication by first adding some more: we’ll make the titles of the pages, which are currently quite similar, match exactly. This will make it much simpler to remove all the repetition at a stroke.

The technique involves using embedded Ruby in our views. Since the Home, Help, and About page titles have a variable component, we’ll use a special Rails function called provide to set a different title on each page. We can see how this works by replacing the literal title “Home” in the home.html.erb view with the code in Listing 3.31.

Listing 3.31: The view for the Home page with an embedded Ruby title. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/home.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "Home") %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Sample App</h1>
    <p>
      This is the home page for the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a>
      sample application.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

Listing 3.31 is our first example of embedded Ruby, also called ERb. (Now you know why HTML views have the file extension .html.erb.) ERb is the primary template system for including dynamic content in web pages.13 The code

<% provide(:title, "Home") %>

indicates using <% ... %> that Rails should call the provide function and associate the string "Home" with the label :title.14 Then, in the title, we use the closely related notation <%= ... %> to insert the title into the template using Ruby’s yield function:15

<title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>

(The distinction between the two types of embedded Ruby is that <% ... %> executes the code inside, while <%= ... %> executes it and inserts the result into the template.) The resulting page is exactly the same as before, only now the variable part of the title is generated dynamically by ERb.

We can verify that all this works by running the tests from Section 3.4.2 and see that they are still GREEN:

Listing 3.32: GREEN

$ rails test
3 tests, 6 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors, 0 skips

Then we can make the corresponding replacements for the Help and About pages (Listing 3.33 and Listing 3.34).

Listing 3.33: The view for the Help page with an embedded Ruby title. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/help.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "Help") %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Help</h1>
    <p>
      Get help on the Ruby on Rails Tutorial at the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/help">Rails Tutorial help
      section</a>.
      To get help on this sample app, see the
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book"><em>Ruby on Rails
      Tutorial</em> book</a>.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

Listing 3.34: The view for the About page with an embedded Ruby title. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/about.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "About") %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>About</h1>
    <p>
      The <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/"><em>Ruby on Rails
      Tutorial</em></a> is a
      <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book">book</a> and
      <a href="http://screencasts.railstutorial.org/">screencast series</a>
      to teach web development with
      <a href="http://rubyonrails.org/">Ruby on Rails</a>.
      This is the sample application for the tutorial.
    </p>
  </body>
</html>

Now that we’ve replaced the variable part of the page titles with ERb, each of our pages looks something like this:

<% provide(:title, "The Title") %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    Contents
  </body>
</html>

In other words, all the pages are identical in structure, including the contents of the title tag, with the sole exception of the material inside the body tag.

In order to factor out this common structure, Rails comes with a special layout file called application.html.erb, which we renamed in the beginning of this section (Section 3.4) and which we’ll now restore:

$ mv layout_file app/views/layouts/application.html.erb

To get the layout to work, we have to replace the default title with the embedded Ruby from the examples above:

<title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>

The resulting layout appears in Listing 3.35.

Listing 3.35: The sample application site layout. GREEN
app/views/layouts/application.html.erb

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title><%= yield(:title) %> | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App</title>
    <%= csrf_meta_tags %>
    <%= stylesheet_link_tag    'application', media: 'all', 
                                              'data-turbolinks-track': 'reload' %>
    <%= javascript_include_tag 'application', 'data-turbolinks-track': 'reload' %>
  </head>

  <body>
    <%= yield %>
  </body>
</html>

Note here the special line

<%= yield %>

This code is responsible for inserting the contents of each page into the layout. It’s not important to know exactly how this works; what matters is that using this layout ensures that, for example, visiting the page /static_pages/home converts the contents of home.html.erb to HTML and then inserts it in place of <%= yield %>.

It’s also worth noting that the default Rails layout includes several additional lines:

<%= csrf_meta_tags %>
<%= stylesheet_link_tag ... %>
<%= javascript_include_tag "application", ... %>

This code arranges to include the application stylesheet and JavaScript, which are part of the asset pipeline (Section 5.2.1), together with the Rails method csrf_meta_tags, which prevents cross-site request forgery (CSRF), a type of malicious web attack.

Of course, the views in Listing 3.31, Listing 3.33, and Listing 3.34 are still filled with all the HTML structure included in the layout, so we have to remove it, leaving only the interior contents. The resulting cleaned-up views appear in Listing 3.36, Listing 3.37, and Listing 3.38.

Listing 3.36: The Home page with HTML structure removed. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/home.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "Home") %>
<h1>Sample App</h1>
<p>
  This is the home page for the
  <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a>
  sample application.
</p>

Listing 3.37: The Help page with HTML structure removed. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/help.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "Help") %>
<h1>Help</h1>
<p>
  Get help on the Ruby on Rails Tutorial at the
  <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/help">Rails Tutorial help section</a>.
  To get help on this sample app, see the
  <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book"><em>Ruby on Rails Tutorial</em>
  book</a>.
</p>

Listing 3.38: The About page with HTML structure removed. GREEN
app/views/static_pages/about.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "About") %>
<h1>About</h1>
<p>
  The <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/"><em>Ruby on Rails
  Tutorial</em></a> is a
  <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/book">book</a> and
  <a href="http://screencasts.railstutorial.org/">screencast series</a>
  to teach web development with
  <a href="http://rubyonrails.org/">Ruby on Rails</a>.
  This is the sample application for the tutorial.
</p>

With these views defined, the Home, Help, and About pages are the same as before, but they have much less duplication.

Experience shows that even fairly simple refactoring is error-prone and can easily go awry. This is one reason why having a good test suite is so valuable. Rather than doublechecking every page for correctness—a procedure that isn’t too hard early on but rapidly becomes unwieldy as an application grows—we can simply verify that the test suite is still GREEN:

Listing 3.39: GREEN

$ rails test
3 tests, 6 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors, 0 skips

This isn’t a proof that our code is still correct, but it greatly increases the probability, thereby providing a safety net to protect us against future bugs.

Exercises

Solutions to exercises are available for free at railstutorial.org/aw-solutions with any Rails Tutorial purchase. To see other people’s answers and to record your own, join the Learn Enough Society at learnenough.com/society.

  1. Make a Contact page for the sample app.16 Following the model in Listing 3.15, first write a test for the existence of a page at the URL /static_pages/contact by testing for the title “Contact | Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App”. Get your test to pass by following the same steps as when making the About page in Section 3.3.3, including filling the Contact page with the content from Listing 3.40.

Listing 3.40: Code for a proposed Contact page.
app/views/static_pages/contact.html.erb

<% provide(:title, "Contact") %>
<h1>Contact</h1>
<p>
  Contact the Ruby on Rails Tutorial about the sample app at the
  <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/contact">contact page</a>.
</p>

3.4.4 Setting the Root Route

Now that we’ve customized our site’s pages and gotten a good start on the test suite, let’s set the application’s root route before moving on. As in Section 1.3.4 and Section 2.2.2, this involves editing the routes.rb file to connect / to a page of our choice, which in this case will be the Home page. (At this point, I also recommend removing the hello action from the Application controller if you added it in Section 3.1.) As shown in Listing 3.41, this means changing the root route from

root 'application#hello'

to

root 'static_pages#home'

This arranges for requests for / to be routed to the home action in the Static Pages controller. The resulting routes file is shown in Figure 3.7.

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.7: The Home page at the root route.

Listing 3.41: Setting the root route to the Home page.
config/routes.rb

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  root 'static_pages#home'
  get  'static_pages/home'
  get  'static_pages/help'
  get  'static_pages/about'
end

Exercises

Solutions to exercises are available for free at railstutorial.org/aw-solutions with any Rails Tutorial purchase. To see other people’s answers and to record your own, join the Learn Enough Society at learnenough.com/society.

  1. Adding the root route in Listing 3.41 leads to the creation of a Rails helper called root_url (in analogy with helpers like static_pages_home_url). By filling in the code marked FILL_IN in Listing 3.42, write a test for the root route.

  2. Due to the code in Listing 3.41, the test in the previous exercise is already GREEN. In such a case, it’s harder to be confident that we’re actually testing what we think we’re testing, so modify the code in Listing 3.41 by commenting out the root route to get to RED (Listing 3.43). (We’ll talk more about Ruby comments in Section 4.2.1.) Then uncomment it (thereby restoring the original Listing 3.41) and verify that you get back to GREEN.

Listing 3.42: A test for the root route. GREEN
test/controllers/static_pages_controller_test.rb

require 'test_helper'

class StaticPagesControllerTest < ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest

  test "should get about" do
    get FILL_IN
    assert_response FILL_IN
  end
  test "should get home" do
    get static_pages_home_url
    assert_response :success
  end

  test "should get help" do
    get static_pages_help_url
    assert_response :success
  end

  test "should get about" do
    get static_pages_about_url
    assert_response :success
  end
end

Listing 3.43: Commenting out the root route to get a failing test. RED
config/routes.rb

Rails.application.routes.draw do
 #   root 'static_pages#home'
  get  'static_pages/home'
  get  'static_pages/help'
  get  'static_pages/about'
end
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We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020