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1.4 Notation

We use the symbol (pronounced ex-or) for the bitwise-exclusive-or operation. We use the symbol | for concatenation. We denote secret key encryption with curly brackets preceded by the key with which something was encrypted, as in K{message}, which means message is secret key encrypted with K. Public key encryption we denote with curly braces, and the name of the owner of the public key subscripting the close brace, as in {message}Bob . Signing (which means using the private key), we denote with square brackets, with the name of the owner of the key subscripting the close bracket, as in [message]Bob.

Table of Notation

bitwise exclusive or (pronounced ex-or)


concatenation (pronounced concatenated with)


message encrypted with secret key K


message encrypted with Bob's public key


message signed with Bob's private key

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