Home > Articles > Web Services > XML

This chapter is from the book

XML for Business Collaboration: ebXML

As previously mentioned, several additional technologies, beyond what's provided in the basic Web services technologies, are required to support true business-to-business interaction over the Web. The Electronic Business XML (ebXML) consortium, for example, has defined a comprehensive set of specifications for an industrial-strength usage pattern for XML document exchange among trading partners. The ebXML messaging specification is based on SOAP with Attachments and does not use WSDL but does add several qualities of service, such as security, guaranteed messaging, and compliance with business process interaction patterns.

The ebXML initiative, the first phase of which ended in May 2001, was sponsored by an international group established by the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and OASIS to research, develop, and promote global standards for the use of XML to facilitate the exchange of electronic business data.5 The ebXML architecture begins with a business process and information model, maps the model to XML schemas, and defines requirements for applications that process the documents and exchange them among trading partners.

Web Services and EDI versus ebXML

Although electronic data interchange (EDI) has been around for more than two decades, it is very complex, has multiple interpretations, and requires significant technical expertise to deploy, and it is based on a tightly coupled, inflexible architecture. Although they can be deployed on public networks, EDI applications are most often used on expensive dedicated networks and require a lot of expertise to set up and run.

By contrast, ebXML and Web services hold the promise of realizing the original goals of EDI, making it simpler and easier to exchange electronic documents over the Internet. However, ebXML and Web services also will have to mature for several years before they encompass all EDI's current functionality and feature set.

Although the ebXML consortium has completed its initial work, OASIS, UN/CEFACT, and other organizations continue to promote the adoption of the architecture and specifications to a broader audience, hoping to establish a global e-business marketplace through the standardized exchange of XML documents and messages, regardless of geographic or political boundaries, and with the qualities of service that businesses expect. The ebXML architecture defines

  • Business processes and their associated messages and content

  • A registry and discovery mechanism for publishing business process sequences with related message exchanges

  • Company profiles

  • Trading-partner agreements

  • A uniform message transport layer mapped to SOAP with multipart MIME attachments

Similarly to the way in which UDDI facilitates a search for Web service definitions, the ebXML architecture allows businesses to find one another by using a registry, to define trading-partner agreements, and to exchange XML messages in support of business operations. The goal is to allow all these activities to be performed automatically, without human intervention, over the Internet. The ebXML architecture has many similarities to SOAP/WSDL/UDDI, and some level of convergence is already taking place with the adoption of SOAP in the ebXML transport specification.6 RosettaNet also announced its adoption of the ebXML transport, as have many other vertical industry consortia.

The ebXML architecture clearly centers on document-oriented interactions; as ebXML gains acceptance, it may come to define the paradigm for B2B-oriented Web service interactions. Companies that already have been exchanging information electronically, perhaps using EDI standards, will find many parallels in the goals of ebXML, although ebXML aims at addressing this type of requirement more broadly and for the Internet.

Comparison of ebXML and SOAP

Initially, it seemed that the ebXML group was competing with the group of companies sponsoring SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI. In fact, the ebXML specifications cover a lot of the same territory as SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI. You could view the SOAP effort at W3C as a "bottom-up" approach, starting with a definition of the way to map XML documents to HTTP messages, and look at the ebXML effort as a "top-down" approach, starting with a definition of the business process as a series of messages mapped to any transport.

The ebXML group was formed primarily to create business process standards, the areas in which the work of ebXML has the most promise. The areas of transport, services description, and registry seem more appropriate to efforts focused more purely on issues of infrastructure than of business process and document interaction. One of the major motivators for ebXML is to produce standards that serve the same or similar purpose as EDI, including support for emerging industry-specific XML "vocabularies." It seems appropriate to consider the ebXML architecture as requirements on W3C and other XML-oriented initiatives as a way of ensuring that Web services will be ready for real business use, rather than as a competitive effort to define core infrastructure services.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020