Home > Articles > Programming > Java

This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

17.6 WebClient: Talking to Web Servers Interactively

In Section 17.4 (Example: A Network Client That Retrieves URLs) and Section 17.5 (The URL Class) we illustrated how easy it is to connect to a Web server and request a document. The programs presented accept a URL from the command line and display the retrieved page to the output stream. In this section, we present WebC_lient, a simple graphical interface to HTTP servers. This program, Listing 17.13, accepts an HTTP request line and request headers from the user. When the user presses Submit Request, the request and headers are sent to the server, followed by a blank line. The response is displayed in a scrolling text area. Downloading is performed in a separate thread so that the user can interrupt the download of long documents.

The HttpClient class, Listing 17.14, does the real network communication. It simply sends the designated request line and request headers to the Web server, then reads, one at a time, the lines that come back, placing them into a JTextArea until either the server closes or the HttpClient is interrupted by means of the isInterrupted flag.

The LabeledTextField class, Listing 17.15, is a simple combination of a JTextField and a JLa_bel and is used in the upper panel of WebClient for user input. The Interruptible class, Listing 17.16, is a simple interface used to identify classes that have an isInterrupted method. Interruptible is used by HttpClient to poll WebClient to see if the user has interrupted the program.

As always, the source code can be downloaded from the on-line archive at http://www.corewebprogramming.com/, and there are no restrictions on use of the code.

A representative conversation with http://www.coreservlets.com is shown in Figure 17–1. Here, only a GET request was sent to the server, without any additional HTTP request headers. For more information on HTTP request headers, see Section 19.7 (The Client Request: HTTP Request Headers), and for HTTP response headers, see Section 19.8 (The Server Response: HTTP Response Headers).

Figure 17–1 A conversation with http://www.coreservlets.com shows a typical request and response.

Listing 17.13 WebClient.java

import java.awt.*; // For BorderLayout, GridLayout, Font, Color.
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.util.*;
import javax.swing.*;
/** A graphical client that lets you interactively connect to
 * Web servers and send custom request lines and
 * request headers.

public class WebClient extends JPanel
  implements Runnable, Interruptible, ActionListener {
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  WindowUtilities.openInJFrame(new WebClient(), 600, 700, 
                 "Web Client", 

 private LabeledTextField hostField, portField,
 private JTextArea requestHeadersArea, resultArea;
 private String host, requestLine;
 private int port;
 private String[] requestHeaders = new String[30];
 private JButton submitButton, interruptButton;
 private boolean isInterrupted = false;

 public WebClient() {
  setLayout(new BorderLayout(5, 30));
  int fontSize = 14;
  Font labelFont =
   new Font("Serif", Font.BOLD, fontSize);
  Font headingFont =
   new Font("SansSerif", Font.BOLD, fontSize+4);
  Font textFont =
   new Font("Monospaced", Font.BOLD, fontSize-2);
  JPanel inputPanel = new JPanel();
  inputPanel.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
  JPanel labelPanel = new JPanel();
  labelPanel.setLayout(new GridLayout(4,1));
  hostField = new LabeledTextField("Host:", labelFont,
                   30, textFont);
  portField = new LabeledTextField("Port:", labelFont,
                   "80", 5, textFont);
  // Use HTTP 1.0 for compatibility with the most servers.
  // If you switch this to 1.1, you *must* supply a
  // Host: request header.
  requestLineField =
   new LabeledTextField("Request Line:", labelFont,
              "GET / HTTP/1.0", 50, textFont);
  JLabel requestHeadersLabel =
   new JLabel("Request Headers:");
  inputPanel.add(labelPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH);
  requestHeadersArea = new JTextArea(5, 80);
  JScrollPane headerScrollArea = 
   new JScrollPane(requestHeadersArea);
  inputPanel.add(headerScrollArea, BorderLayout.CENTER);
  JPanel buttonPanel = new JPanel();
  submitButton = new JButton("Submit Request");
  inputPanel.add(buttonPanel, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
  add(inputPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH);
  JPanel resultPanel = new JPanel();
  resultPanel.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
  JLabel resultLabel =
   new JLabel("Results", JLabel.CENTER);
  resultPanel.add(resultLabel, BorderLayout.NORTH);
  resultArea = new JTextArea();
  JScrollPane resultScrollArea = 
   new JScrollPane(resultArea);  
  resultPanel.add(resultScrollArea, BorderLayout.CENTER);
  JPanel interruptPanel = new JPanel();
  interruptButton = new JButton("Interrupt Download");
  resultPanel.add(interruptPanel, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
  add(resultPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
 public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event) {
  if (event.getSource() == submitButton) {
   Thread downloader = new Thread(this);
  } else if (event.getSource() == interruptButton) {
   isInterrupted = true;

 public void run() {
  isInterrupted = false;
  if (hasLegalArgs()) 
   new HttpClient(host, port, requestLine,
		   requestHeaders, resultArea, this);
 public boolean isInterrupted() {

 private boolean hasLegalArgs() {
  host = hostField.getTextField().getText();
  if (host.length() == 0) {
   report("Missing hostname");
  String portString =
  if (portString.length() == 0) {
   report("Missing port number");
  try {
   port = Integer.parseInt(portString);
  } catch(NumberFormatException nfe) {
   report("Illegal port number: " + portString);
  requestLine =
  if (requestLine.length() == 0) {
   report("Missing request line");
 private void report(String s) {

 private void getRequestHeaders() {
  for(int i=0; i<requestHeaders.length; i++) {
   requestHeaders[i] = null;
  int headerNum = 0;
  String header =
  StringTokenizer tok =
   new StringTokenizer(header, "\r\n");
  while (tok.hasMoreTokens()) {
   requestHeaders[headerNum++] = tok.nextToken();

Listing 17.14 HttpClient.java

import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;
import javax.swing.*;

/** The underlying network client used by WebClient. */

public class HttpClient extends NetworkClient {
 private String requestLine;
 private String[] requestHeaders;
 private JTextArea outputArea;
 private Interruptible app;
 public HttpClient(String host, int port,
          String requestLine, String[] requestHeaders,
          JTextArea outputArea, Interruptible app) {
  super(host, port);
  this.requestLine = requestLine;
  this.requestHeaders = requestHeaders;
  this.outputArea = outputArea;
  this.app = app;
  if (checkHost(host)) {

 protected void handleConnection(Socket uriSocket)
   throws IOException {
  try {
   PrintWriter out = SocketUtil.getWriter(uriSocket);
   BufferedReader in = SocketUtil.getReader(uriSocket);
   for(int i=0; i<requestHeaders.length; i++) {
    if (requestHeaders[i] == null) {
    } else {
   String line;
   while ((line = in.readLine()) != null &&
       !app.isInterrupted()) {
    outputArea.append(line + "\n");
   if (app.isInterrupted()) {
    outputArea.append("---- Download Interrupted ----");
  } catch(Exception e) {
   outputArea.setText("Error: " + e);

 private boolean checkHost(String host) {
  try {
  } catch(UnknownHostException uhe) {
   outputArea.setText("Bogus host: " + host);

Listing 17.15 LabeledTextField.java

import java.awt.*; // For FlowLayout, Font.
import javax.swing.*;

/** A TextField with an associated Label. */

public class LabeledTextField extends JPanel {
 private JLabel label;
 private JTextField textField;
 public LabeledTextField(String labelString,
             Font labelFont,
             int textFieldSize,
             Font textFont) {
  setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.LEFT));
  label = new JLabel(labelString, JLabel.RIGHT);
  if (labelFont != null) {
  textField = new JTextField(textFieldSize);
  if (textFont != null) {

 public LabeledTextField(String labelString,
             String textFieldString) {
  this(labelString, null, textFieldString,
     textFieldString.length(), null);

 public LabeledTextField(String labelString,
             int textFieldSize) {
  this(labelString, null, textFieldSize, null);
 public LabeledTextField(String labelString,
             Font labelFont,
             String textFieldString,
             int textFieldSize,
             Font textFont) {
  this(labelString, labelFont,
     textFieldSize, textFont);

 /** The Label at the left side of the LabeledTextField.
  * To manipulate the Label, do:
  * <PRE>
  *  LabeledTextField ltf = new LabeledTextField(...);
  *  ltf.getLabel().someLabelMethod(...);
  * </PRE>
 public JLabel getLabel() {

 /** The TextField at the right side of the
  * LabeledTextField.
 public JTextField getTextField() {

Listing 16.16 Interruptible.java

/** An interface for classes that can be polled to see
 * if they've been interrupted. Used by HttpClient
 * and WebClient to allow the user to interrupt a network
 * download.

public interface Interruptible {
 public boolean isInterrupted();

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020