Home > Articles > Home & Office Computing > The Web/Virtual Worlds/Social Networking

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Exercise 5: hping2

Description

Before an aggressor can successfully attack or exploit an organization, a certain level of reconnaissance must be performed. The aggressor must collect enough information about the target to have a solid understanding of the network, services, and probable vulnerabilities of the network she is attacking. Another tool to assist in that reconnaissance is hping2. hping2 is a network tool that sends custom ICMP, UDP, and TCP packets and displays target replies the same way ping does with ICMP replies. In addition to the normal ICMP functionality, hping2 can handle fragmentation, arbitrary packet body, and size. It can also be used to transfer files under supported protocols. This tool is useful for testing firewall rules, spoofed port scanning, network performance, packet sizes, TOS (type of service), fragmentation, path MTU discovery, file transfer, traceroute with different protocols, firewalk-like usage, remote OS fingerprinting, TCP/IP stack auditing, and much more.

Objective

The objective of this exercise is to provide an understanding of what an attacker can learn about your system from outside your organization. You will also learn how stealth mode can be used to protect the identity of the scanner.

Requirements

Challenge Procedure

The following are the steps that you will perform for this exercise:

  1. Download and install hping2.

  2. Verify that you have an IP address bound to your NIC.

  3. Use hping2 to determine if a host is active. Use your host as the target for all scans, and use your actual IP address, not a local host, or 127.0.0.1.

  4. Use hping2 to determine if a service is active. The target service will depend on your host configuration. The SSH service (port 22) may be a good service to scan for.

  5. Perform a stealth scan on your system with hping2.

Challenge Procedure Step-by-Step

The following are the detailed steps you will perform to install and run hping2 on your system:

  1. Create a folder called sans in the /usr/local directory using the following:

  2. cd /usr/local

    mkdir sans

    Figure 6.40

  3. Now, download hping2 from http://www.hping.org/hping2.0.0-rc1.tar.gz.

  4. Copy hping2 to the tools directory using the following:

  5. cp hping2.0.0-rc1.tar.gz /usr/local/tools

    cd /usr/local/tools

    Figure 6.41

  6. Now, install hping2. Use the following:

    tar zxf hping2.0.0-rc1.tar.gz

    Change the directory to hping2.0.0-rc1 using the following command:

    cd hping2

    Figure 6.42

  7. Edit the configure shell script so that it will correctly set the search path for the man files. To do this, use vi to edit the file:

  8. vi configure

    Figure 6.43

  9. Search for the line that sets the man path variable:

  10. /INSTALL_MANPATH=

    After you type the slash key (/), the cursor goes to the bottom of the screen. Enter the search value and press Enter to execute the search.

    Figure 6.44

  11. Use your cursor keys to position your cursor to the right of the "e" in "echo."

  12. Change the remainder of the line by typing C (make sure you capitalize the C). The last part of the command should disappear. Enter the following:

    manpath | cut –f1 –d:´

    The last character in the previous line is the backward apostrophe, which is usually found to the left of the 1 key on a PC keyboard.

    Figure 6.45

  13. Press the Esc key to complete the change. Then, save the change and quit vi by typing the following:

  14. wq!

  15. Run configure to prepare the Makefile for compilation of hping2:

  16. ./configure

    Figure 6.46

  17. Run make to compile hping2.

  18. Figure 6.47

    After you type make, the system will compile the program and display several messages on the screen.

    Figure 6.48

  19. After make completes, run make install.

  20. Figure 6.49

  21. Now, use hping2 to determine if a host is active:

  22. hping2 127.0.0.1 –S –p 22

    Use the actual IP address of your system. Do not use 127.0.0.1.

    Figure 6.50

    Challenge Question: What is the primary difference between hping2 and the standard ping utility?

  23. Use hping2 to see if the host is running the SSH Service. This is done by typing the following command:

  24. hping2 192.168.0.50 –S –p 22

    Figure 6.51

    Challenge Question: What is the benefit of hping2 displaying the TCP flags that were set in the return packets?

    Challenge Question: Notice that the return packets have the SYN/ACK flags set, which is the second stage of the TCP three-way handshake. What does this indicate?

  25. Next, use hping2 to scan a remote system and hide its identity. This is done by typing the following command:

  26. hping2 192.168.0.50 –a 192.168.0.11 -S

    Figure 6.52

    Notice that no packets came back to the scanning system. That's because the spoofing option made the packets appear to be coming from another host.

Challenge Question: How can an attacker performing reconnaissance use spoofing?

Additional Reading

Find additional information on hping at http://www.hping.org.

Summary

hping2 is a powerful, stealthy tool that can be used to find remote hosts and determine the services running on the remote hosts. You have learned how a scan can use spoofing to hide the identity of the scanning system. Remember this when you start reviewing log files for evidence of scans performed on your system. Just because it says it came from Host A does not mean it did.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020