Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Accessing Metadata

Once metadata is stored, it must be accessed. Metadata beneficiaries have different access requirements, and a beneficiary-specific analysis process, covered in Part IV, is a prerequisite to finalizing the overall metadata solution interfaces. The following metadata access possibilities exist:

Direct query—Either via a front-end interface or a DBMS query language, the metadata store is queried directly based on its underlying schema.

Tool-driven access—An interfacing tool (development tool, reporting tool, etc.) presents metadata to the beneficiary. The metadata exists in the tool's metadata store.

API-driven access—Tools, applications, or other software use metadata solution-specific APIs to get to the stored metadata.

Remote procedure calls (RPCs)—From a reverse point of view, the metadata solution uses procedures inherent to the "keepers of the metadata," so to speak, as a means of retrieving metadata from its resting place. Typically, metamodels in this scenario need to accommodate the location and access procedures associated with each metadata source that falls within the scope of the served beneficiaries.

Batch export—Creation of a simple extract, download, or file brings a set of metadata from the metadata solution to the requesting beneficiary.

Standards-based metadata exchange—As exchange standards become finalized, more metadata solution implementations leave the access of the metadata to exchange mechanisms that are not vendor specific. XML is a popular example.

Portal/directory-based access—Based on specific search engines, metadata is retrieved and displayed to the requestor by matching metadata instances to search requirements.

The type of access that is best for a beneficiary is selected based on the analysis of architectural requirements.

Revisiting the Metadata Architecture

Metadata everywhere, beneficiaries everywhere, and the relationships among them never seem to be planned or logical. The metadata architecture organizes the metamodel components based on a logical spread of metadata sources. Specifically, metadata of record assignments are validated based on the availability of a specific metadata store, whether it is part of a tool, application, or other metadata solution. Consider Figure 11-4 and the patterned relationships among metamodels. In a well-planned metadata architecture, the integrated metamodel represents a uniform conglomeration of the specific and unique metamodels that reside across the architecture. Common metadata is represented in a common metamodel. It is then supplemented with the interface points that may be necessary to connect the common metadata to the metamodels of each architectural component.

Figure 11-4 A sample metadata architecture

Where the Tools Fit In

As we evaluate metadata access, one questions always is, How do various metadata suppliers and recipients fit into the overall plan? The most common metadata forces in the architecture are those tools we all know and love. We use them to create data, analyze data, and process data. We use them to develop source code, configure applications, and maintain hardware/software assignments. We use them to tune our databases and monitor system performance. A day without tools is like a day without sunshine. As we use all these tools, we create and use metadata over and over again. Now that we have not only strategically identified which metadata is of importance to our beneficiaries, but also sourced all of it, the tools are crucial components of the overall metadata solution inasmuch as they buy and sell metadata. The metadata solution architecture relates all components into an organized and accessible set of logical metadata.

Determining the Scope of Coverage

As we evolve our metadata architecture, focusing on the participating tools and their ability to either access metadata or be accessed, the scope of metadata coverage begins to tighten. Although there are formal ways to scope a metadata solution,6 it is important to note that sometimes technical issues force the elimination or redirection of some metadata aspects of the solution. If some tools are full of valuable metadata, but have no clear-cut way of being accessed, many metadata solution designers may rethink the immediate solution to account for this lack of clear interface capability. Other ways of scoping the metadata solution relate the amount of beneficiaries to be covered in the first implementation to the specific functions that will be addressed by the metadata solution, or even to what metadata will be included.

Metadata solutions that try to address all needs with the first implementation are destined to fail. When metadata solutions are scoped so that increased functionality, metadata accessibility, and beneficiary service are added over time, the metadata solution becomes exponentially more successful.

Consider the fact that metadata is just one part of the overall metadata solution. Consider also that metadata is typically addressed by a full metadata solution as part of an overall metamodel or series of metamodels.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020