Home > Articles > Data > Oracle

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Choosing an e-Business Architecture

In a client/server environment, the client connects to the database via SQL*Net or Net8 and maintains the connection until all the transactions are complete. This process is resource intensive because the client maintains the connection even if no processing is actually occurring. For an e-Business such as DOeBIZ.com, a thin-client multitier architecture is more suitable. In this architecture, an application server can act as a broker for client requests and server responses:

  1. The client uses a Web browser or some other interface to send requests to the application server.

  2. The application server makes a connection to the database server.

  3. The server processes the request, and the result is sent back to the application server.

  4. The application server disconnects from the server and returns the requested information to the client.

Note that most Web applications use some form of connection-sharing techniques such as connection pooling, multithreaded servers, and so on.

Be Ready for Change

As an iDBA, you should redesign the technical aspects of a project to align with the changes made in the various business units and practices.

This architecture is better than a straight client/server architecture for the following reasons:

  • The client doesn't stay connected to the database.

  • The application server stays connected only for the time required to make a request and receive the results back from the database server.

  • Network traffic is reduced.

  • Idle processes do not consume resources.

  • Response time is improved.


You should consider mirroring of Web servers that provide static content. Mirroring will improve the performance and availability of the overall system.

In addition, you can use Oracle's multithreaded server configuration (MTS) and connection managers to maintain constant prespawned connections to the server. This approach reduces the amount of overhead time needed to create the connection each time a query needs to be processed. Applications in the middle tier can be controlled by a Transaction Processing Monitor (TPM)—for example, Tuxedo, Encina, Microsoft Transaction Server, or CICS.

Transaction Processing Monitor

You should consider a Transaction Processing Monitor (TPM) when you have to support high transaction volumes involving one or more databases.

Changing a business to an e-Business involves, to an extent, support for globalization. Understanding this fact is very important because, for an e-Business to be successful, the business practices will have to change a great deal, and the architecture you choose will have to take into account these various factors. For example, the growing complexity of a global supply chain would require scalable systems that can extend the capabilities of current Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS), Order Management System (OMS), legacy, and so on. Generally, the existing systems are unable to support the new demands placed on them by the e-Business. Consider these examples:

  • ERP systems are designed to standardize transactions and processes for efficiency purposes but not rapidly perform global commerce.

  • APS systems are not flexible enough to compensate for the changing external constraints placed by the B2B environment or global commerce.

  • Order management systems are not optimized for inventory and shipment tracking.

Choosing the File System

Several questions need to be addressed when you're determining the file system to use:

  • Should disk striping be used?

  • Should a RAID configuration be used? If yes, RAID 0+1 or RAID 5?

  • How should the RAID cache be configured?

  • Should RAW partitions be used?

For Windows NT, disk striping probably provides the best performance advantage over other disk management strategies. Two types of disk configuration are popular when you're running Oracle on Windows NT:

  • RAID 5 (disk striping with parity)

  • RAID 0+1 (disk striping combined with disk mirroring)

RAID 0+1 is expensive but provides the best fault tolerance due to the hardware duplication. On the other hand, RAID 5 provides a more cost-effective solution.

The following guidelines can be useful in configuring a RAID cache for the various parts of the system:

  • A write cache can be useful in an online transaction processing (OLTP) environment to accommodate the rate of data updates. When you use the write cache, ensure that the disk controller is backed up by a battery; otherwise, data may be lost. Oracle can cache its own reads; therefore, you don't need to use a read cache.

  • Neither a read nor write cache is needed in a decision support system (DSS) environment.

RAW Partitions

RAW partitions aren't buffered by the kernel and can provide faster access compared to File Allocation Table (FAT) or New Technology File System (NTFS) file systems for files accessed sequentially and for I/O-bound systems. The disadvantage of using RAW partitions, however, is that they provide restricted disk configuration options.

Choosing the Operating System

Essentially, all operating systems do the same thing: They make your computer work and perform various tasks. In addition to this basic requirement, an operating system used for an e-Business should provide the following features:

  • Reliability

  • Scalability

  • Security

  • Interoperability

  • Support for X.500-based directories (which will allow customer profiling)

Table 3.1 shows some important OS requirements for an e-Business and how Windows 2000, Linux, and UNIX stack up.

Table 3.1 Comparing Operating Systems for an e-Business

Feature Windows2000 Server Red Hat Linux6.2 Professional Sun Solaris 8
Maximum CPUs per node 4 8 64
Remote administration console Yes Yes No
Bundled Web server IIS 5.0 Apache Web Server 1.3.9 Apache Web Server 1.3.9
Cost Medium Low (almost free) High
Enabled directory Yes No Yes
Performance monitoring of CGI and other API requests Yes Yes Yes
Maximum nodes for load balancing 32 Unlimited Unlimited
SMP support Yes Yes Yes
Hot swapping of hardware supported Yes Yes Yes
Hot patching of software supported No No Yes
Application server supported Yes Yes No
Authoring tools supported Yes Yes No
DNS server Yes Yes No
Search engine included Yes No No
SSL support Yes Yes Yes
Minimum processor Pentium class i386 or better SPARC or Intel
Minimum RAM 256MB 8MB 64MB
Vendor Web site http://www.microsoft.com http://www.redhat.com http://www.sun.com

Choosing the e-Business Server

Servers are machines on the network that control various critical operations. They manage a number of functionalities, and as such they fall in different categories depending upon their functionalities:

  • Web servers—These servers act as intermediaries between the client's Web browser (such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) and the actual content. Original Web servers simply served HTML documents and images, but the Web servers of today are more intelligent and specialized and can perform tasks such as load balancing, security, and performance. The core functionality provided by Web servers is to satisfy requests for Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). In other words, a client may use a browser to send a request for a Web page such as www.doebizhomepage.com. This request is received by a Web server that maps the URL to a local file on the host server. The Web server loads the file from disk and serves it across the network to the client's browser.

  • Payment servers—These servers are an important part of an e-Commerce system. They allow customers to buy things and make payments. Customers can place orders and enter payment information, which is transmitted by the payment server for processing. Upon receipt of approval, the server completes the order and gives the customer an order number and payment receipt; the order is then transmitted to the internal order processing system. Use of a separate payment server allows you to optimize it for payment processing as well as enhance its security (because it is dealing with customers' credit cards and so on).

  • Database servers—Most businesses use databases, and the database server provides a means to centralize the data that will be provided to various applications.

  • Application servers—These servers enable you to develop and deploy Internet applications by allowing client programs running in browsers to connect to the database. Application servers provide several advantages:

    • Reduce the size and complexity of client programs

    • Improve security for data

    • Improve performance by caching data

    • Allow ease in application management

    • Allow ease in sharing data across applications

Figure 3.1 shows a simple architecture using the various servers. In later chapters, we will refine the architecture for scalability, security, performance, and availability.

Figure 3.1 Simple initial architecture for DOeBIZ.com.

These major players in the industry provide application servers:

  • Microsoft's Windows DNA (IIS, SQL Server 2000, and Commerce Server 2000) and the .NET initiative.

  • iPlanet e-Business suite, including iPlanet Application Server 6.0 (iPlanet is the result of a joint venture between Sun Microsystems and Netscape).

  • IBM's WebSphere application server

  • BEA Systems' WebLogic

  • Oracle's Internet Application Server

Additional Architectural Components

While you're designing your e-Business, you will have to consider several other components, such as XML, firewalls, Java, JavaBeans, HTML, CGI, and so on. These technologies will be discussed in later chapters as appropriate.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020