Home > Articles > Operating Systems, Server > Microsoft Servers

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Name Server Types

If a name server hosts a certain type of zone, the name server is typically referred to as that type of name server. For instance, if you configure a name server to host a primary zone named ZoneA, the name server would be called a primary name server for ZoneA. The types of name servers you can configure on a computer running the Windows 2000 DNS service are the same as the zone types previously listed, as well as two other types:

  • Master (for a standard zone)—Any name server that hosts a primary or secondary copy of a zone database and is also responsible for sending updated copies of the database to other name servers is known as a master name server.

  • Caching-only—A caching-only name server does not host any zone databases and does not respond to queries from other name servers, but it does perform name resolution for client resolvers.

A DNS name server can be used to host several zones, so the name server can be a primary name server for one zone and a secondary name server for a different zone. If the name server hosts the primary name server for a zone, it is a master name server for that zone by default.

Primary Name Server

A name server that is a primary name server maintains a zone database file. Any changes made to the zone are made to the primary zone database file, and then replicated to any secondary name servers for that zone. In addition to maintaining the information for the zone, the primary name server also responds to queries from client computers on its network and other name servers on the Internet. Figure 3.1 shows a primary name server for 501.redtab.com.

Figure 3.1 Primary name server for the 501redtab.com domain.

To create a new primary zone on a Windows 2000 DNS server, from the DNS tool (located in the Administrative Tools menu), you start the New Zone Wizard, select Standard Primary, and complete the wizard. By default, the wizard will create a file with the same name as the zone, place the file in the systemroot\system32\dns directory, and create SOA (Start of Authority) and NS (Name Server) resource records in the zone file. After any changes are made to the zone database file, a backup copy of the file is created in systemroot\system32\dns\backup. Along with the file being created in the folder, a key is added to the Registry HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\DNS\zones\zonename for each zone created.


SOA, NS, and several other types of records are discussed in detail in Chapter 8, "Exploring Resource Records."

After the Primary zone is created, you can configure and update the zone using the DNS tool located on the Administrative Tools menu. While using the DNS tool is the preferred method, you can also edit the zone files directly using a text editor.

Secondary Name Server

Before you can create a secondary zone database, the primary zone must already be created on another name server. To create a new secondary zone database file, start the New Zone Wizard in the DNS tool, select Standard Secondary, and complete the wizard. Once created, the zone will be populated with the records from the master name server from which you will receive the zone transfers.

Figure 3.2 shows Server1 hosting the standard primary zone for the 501redtab.com zone with a secondary server named Server2 being configured as a secondary name server.

Figure 3.2 A primary server for the 501redtab zone named Server1, which is also the master server for Server2. Server2 is the master server for Server3.

  • Server1 is primary and master for server 2.

  • Server2 is secondary with Server1 acting as master and updating Server2.

  • Server3 is secondary with server2 acting as master and updating server 3.

Server2 is configured with Server1 as its master; therefore, Server2 receives its zone updates from Server1. Server3 is configured as a secondary name server for the 501redtab.com zone and is configured to use Server2 as its master. Therefore, Server3 receives its zone updates from Server2.

Master Name Server

A master name server provides zone updates to a secondary name server. Both standard primary and standard secondary zones can be master name servers, and there is no additional configuring needed to make a name server a master name server. In Windows 2000, you must list all the name servers for a zone in the primary zone database using NS resource records. To do this using the DNS tool, do the following:

  1. From the Administrative Tools menu, click DNS.

  2. Right-click the primary zone you want to list the name servers for, and then click Properties.

  3. Under the Name Servers tab, add the name servers that will host the zone database file.

The NS resource records will be created automatically when you add them to the name server list. After the name servers for the zone are listed on the name server tab, each time you create a secondary zone, you can provide the address of any of the name servers listed, thus making the server listed a master for the secondary you are creating.


A caching-only name server is used to provide name resolution client resolvers in a small, remote office with limited network bandwidth. A caching-only name server does not host any zone database files; therefore,

  • Network traffic responding to queries from other name servers will not be generated.

  • Network traffic using supporting zone file updates will not be generated because a caching-only name server does not host any zone files.

  • Network traffic generated by client resolver queries will be reduced. When a caching-only name server resolves a query for a client resolver, the results are stored in the name server's cache. The name server will use the information stored in cache to resolve other resolver queries.

To create a caching-only name server, install the DNS service but do not configure any zones. Configure client computer's TCP/IP properties to use the DNS server you configured for name resolution.

Active Directory Integrated

To create an Active Directory Integrated zone, you use the DNS interface and New Zone Wizard just as you would to create a standard primary or standard secondary zone. The option to create an Active Directory Integrated zone will be available if your DNS service is running on a domain controller. When you create an Active Directory Integrated zone, you view and manage the zone using the DNS tool.

The zone is stored as a dnsZone container in Active Directory, and any resource records in the zone are stored as dnsNodes in the container for their zone, as shown in Figure 3.3.

To view the zone and any resource records for the zone, do the following:

  1. From the Administrative Tools menu, open Active Directory Users and Computers.

  2. On the View menu, click Advanced Features.

  3. In the Active Directory Users and Computers console tree, expand System, and then expand MicrosoftDNS. The Active Directory Integrated zone will be listed. Click the zone you want to view, and the resource records will appear in the details pane.

Figure 3.3 Active Directory Integrated zone being viewed using Active Directory Users and Computers.

Active Directory Integrated zones use a multiple master model, so any domain controller for a Windows networking domain that has the DNS service installed and the zone configured in DNS can manage a zone database. This provides fault-tolerance because there is no single point of failure for the zone as there is with a standard primary zone.

You can configure a standard secondary zone, even if the primary zone is an Active Directory Integrated zone. Because the DNS service provided with Windows 2000 is RFC-compliant, you can configure any RFC-compliant DNS name server as a secondary server for an Active Directory Integrated zone.

Reverse Lookup

You can create an Active Directory Integrated reverse lookup zone that works in the same manner as an Active Directory forward lookup zone. As with the Active Directory Integrated forward lookup zone, the reverse lookup zone is stored in Active Directory, and standard secondary in-addr.arpa zones can be configured to use the Active Directory reverse lookup zone for the master (see Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.4 DNS Manager with an in-addr.arpa (reverse lookup zone) displayed.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020