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Filtering Incoming Packets

The input side of the external interface I/O pair, the input rule set, is the more interesting in terms of securing your site. As mentioned earlier, you can filter based on source address, destination address, source port, destination port, TCP status flags, and other criteria. You’ll learn about all these pieces of information at one point or another in the following sections.

Remote Source Address Filtering

At the packet level, the only means of identifying the IP packet’s sender is the source address in the packet header. This fact allows for the possibility of source address spoofing, in which the sender places an incorrect address rather than his or her own address in the source field. The address might be a nonexistent address, or it might be a legitimate address belonging to someone else. This can allow unsavory types to break into your system by appearing as local, trusted traffic; appearing to be you while attacking other sites; pretending to be someone else while attacking you; keeping your system bogged down responding to nonexistent addresses; or otherwise misleading you as to the source of incoming messages.

It’s important to remember that you usually can’t detect spoofed addresses. The address might be legitimate and routable but might not belong to the packet’s sender. The next section describes the spoofed addresses you can detect.

Source Address Spoofing and Illegal Addresses

There are several major classes of source addresses you should deny on your external interface in all cases. These are incoming packets claiming to be from the following:

  • Your IP address—You will never see legal incoming packets claiming to be from your machine. Because the source address is the only information available and it can be modified, this is one of the forms of legitimate address spoofing you can detect at the packet-filtering level. Incoming packets claiming to be from your machine are spoofed. You can’t be certain whether other incoming packets are coming from where they claim to be. (Note that some operating systems crash if they receive a packet in which both the source and the destination addresses belong to the host’s network interface.)
  • Your LAN addresses—You will rarely see legal incoming packets on the external, Internet interface claiming to be from your LAN. It’s possible to see such packets if the LAN has multiple access points to the Internet, but it would probably be a sign of a misconfigured local network. In most cases, such a packet would be part of an attempt to gain access to your site by exploiting your local trust relationships.
  • Class A, B, and C private IP addresses—These three sets of addresses in the historical Class A, B, and C ranges are reserved for use in private LANs. They aren’t intended for use on the Internet. As such, these addresses can be used by any site internally without the need to purchase registered IP addresses. Your machine should never see incoming packets from these source addresses:

    • Class A private addresses are assigned the range from to
    • Class B private addresses are assigned the range from to
    • Class C private addresses are assigned the range from to
  • Class D multicast IP addresses—IP addresses in the Class D range are set aside for use as destination addresses when participating in a multicast network broadcast, such as an audiocast or a videocast. They range from to Your machine should never see packets from these source addresses.
  • Class E reserved IP addresses—IP addresses in the Class E range were set aside for future and experimental use and are not assigned publicly. They range from to Your machine should never see packets from these source addresses—and mostly likely won’t. (Because the entire address range is permanently reserved up through, the Class E range can realistically be defined as to In fact, some sources define the Class E address range to be exactly that.)
  • Loopback interface addresses—The loopback interface is a private network interface used by the Linux system for local, network-based services. Rather than sending local traffic through the network interface driver, the operating system takes a shortcut through the loopback interface as a performance improvement. By definition, loopback traffic is targeted for the system generating it. It doesn’t go out on the network. The loopback address range is to You’ll usually see it referred to as, localhost, or the loopback interface, lo.
  • Malformed broadcast addresses—Broadcast addresses are special addresses applying to all machines on a network. Address is a special broadcast source address. A legitimate broadcast source address will be either or a regular IP address. DHCP clients and servers will see incoming broadcast packets from source address This is the only legal use of this source address. It is not a legitimate point-to-point, unicast source address. When seen as the source address in a regular, point-to-point, nonbroadcast packet, the address is forged, or the sender isn’t fully configured.
  • Class A network 0 addresses—As suggested previously, any source address in the through range is illegal as a unicast address.
  • Link local network addresses—DHCP clients sometimes assign themselves a link local address when they can’t get an address from a server. These addresses range from to
  • Carrier-grade NAT—There are IPs that are marked for use by Internet providers that should never appear on a public network, the public Internet. These addresses can, however, be used in cloud scenarios, and therefore, if your server is hosted at a cloud provider, you may see these addresses. The carrier-grade NAT addresses range from to
  • TEST-NET addresses—The address space from to is reserved for test networks.

Blocking Problem Sites

Another common, but less frequently used, source address–filtering scheme is to block all access from a selected machine or, more typically, from an entire network’s IP address block. This is how the Internet community tends to deal with problem sites and ISPs that don’t police their users. If a site develops a reputation as a bad Internet neighbor, other sites tend to block it across the board.

On the individual level, blocking all access from selected networks is convenient when individuals in the remote network are habitually making a nuisance of themselves. This has historically been used as a means to fight unsolicited email, with some people going so far as to block an entire country’s range of IP addresses.

Limiting Incoming Packets to Selected Remote Hosts

You might want to accept certain kinds of incoming packets from only specific external sites or individuals. In these cases, the firewall rules will define either specific IP addresses or a limited range of IP source addresses that these packets will be accepted from.

The first class of incoming packets is from remote servers responding to your requests. Although some services, such as web or FTP services, can be expected to be coming from anywhere, other services will legitimately be coming from only your ISP or specially chosen trusted hosts. Examples of servers that are probably offered only through your ISP are POP mail service, Domain Name Service (DNS) name server responses, and possible DHCP or dynamic IP address assignments.

The second class of incoming packets is from remote clients accessing services offered from your site. Again, although some incoming service connections, such as connections to your web server, can be expected to be coming from anywhere, other local services will be offered to only a few trusted remote users or friends. Examples of restricted local services might be ssh and ping.

Local Destination Address Filtering

Filtering incoming packets based on the destination address is not much of an issue. Under normal operation, your network interface card ignores regular packets that aren’t addressed to it. The exception is broadcast packets, which are broadcast to all hosts on the network.

The IPv4 address is the general broadcast destination address. It refers to all hosts on the immediate physical network segment, and it is called a limited broadcast. A broadcast address can be defined more explicitly as the highest address in a given subnet of IP addresses. For example, if your ISP’s network address is with a 24-bit subnet mask ( and your IP address is, you would see broadcast packets addressed to from your ISP. On the other hand, if you have a smaller range of IP addresses, say a /30 (, then you have a total of four addresses: one network, two for hosts, and the broadcast. For example, consider the network In this network, is the network address, the two hosts would be and, and the broadcast address would be This /30 subnet configuration type is typically used between routers, though the actual addresses themselves may vary. The only way to know what the broadcast address will be for a given subnet is to know both an IP address within the subnet and the subnet mask. These types of broadcasts are called directed subnet broadcasts and are delivered to all hosts on that network.

Broadcast-to-destination address is similar to the situation of point-to-point packets claiming to be from the broadcast source address mentioned earlier, in the section “Source Address Spoofing and Illegal Addresses.” Here, broadcast packets are directed to source address rather than to the destination address, In this case, there is little question about the packet’s intent. This is an attempt to identify your system as a Linux machine. For historical reasons, networking code derived from BSD UNIX returns an ICMP Type 3 error message in response to being used as the broadcast destination address. Other operating systems silently discard the packet. As such, this is a good example of why dropping versus rejecting a packet makes a difference. In this case, the error message itself is what the probe is looking for.

Remote Source Port Filtering

Incoming requests and connections from remote clients to your local servers will have a source port in the unprivileged range. If you are hosting a web server, all incoming connections to your web server should have a source port between 1024 and 65535. (That the server port identifies the service is the intention but not the guarantee. You cannot be certain that the server you expect is running at the port you expect.)

Incoming responses and connections from remote servers that you contacted will have the source port that is assigned to the particular service. If you connect to a remote website, all incoming messages from the remote server will have the source port set to 80 (or whatever port the local client specified), the http service port number.

Local Destination Port Filtering

The destination port in incoming packets identifies the program or service on your computer that the packet is intended for. As with the source port, all incoming requests from remote clients to your services generally follow the same pattern, and all incoming responses from remote services to your local clients follow a different pattern.

Incoming requests and connections from remote clients to your local servers will set the destination port to the service number that you assigned to the particular service. For example, an incoming packet destined for your local web server would normally have the destination port set to 80, the http service port number.

Incoming responses from remote servers that you contacted will have a destination port in the unprivileged range. If you connect to a remote website, all incoming messages from the remote server will have a destination port between 1024 and 65535.

Incoming TCP Connection State Filtering

Incoming TCP packet acceptance rules can make use of the connection state flags associated with TCP connections. All TCP connections adhere to the same set of connection states. These states differ between client and server because of the three-way handshake during connection establishment. As such, the firewall can distinguish between incoming traffic from remote clients and incoming traffic from remote servers.

Incoming TCP packets from remote clients will have the SYN flag set in the first packet received as part of the three-way connection establishment handshake. The first connection request will have the SYN flag set, but not the ACK flag.

Incoming packets from remote servers will always be responses to the initial connection request initiated from your local client program. Every TCP packet received from a remote server will have the ACK flag set. Your local client firewall rules will require all incoming packets from remote servers to have the ACK flag set. Servers do not normally attempt to initiate connections to client programs.

Probes and Scans

A probe is an attempt to connect to or get a response from an individual service port. A scan is a series of probes to a set of different service ports. Scans are often automated.

Unfortunately, probes and scans are rarely innocent anymore. They are most likely the initial information-gathering phase, looking for interesting vulnerabilities before launching an attack. Automated scan tools are widespread, and coordinated efforts by groups of hackers are common. The security, or lack thereof, of many hosts on the Internet, along with the proliferation of worms, viruses, and zombied machines, makes scans a constant issue on the Internet.

General Port Scans

General port scans are indiscriminate probes across a large block of service ports, possibly the entire range (see Figure 2.6). These scans are somewhat less frequent—or, at least, less obvious—as more sophisticated, targeted stealth tools become available.


Figure 2.6 A general port scan

Targeted Port Scans

Targeted port scans look for specific vulnerabilities (see Figure 2.7). The newer, more sophisticated tools attempt to identify the hardware, operating system, and software versions. These tools are designed to identify targets that might be prone to a specific vulnerability.


Figure 2.7 A targeted port scan

Common Service Port Targets

Common targets often are individually probed as well as scanned. The attacker might be looking for a specific vulnerability, such as an insecure mail server, an unpatched web server, or an open remote procedure call (RPC) portmap daemon.

A more extensive list of ports can be found at http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers. Only a few common ports are mentioned here, to give you the idea:

  • Incoming packets from reserved port 0 are always bogus. This port isn’t used legitimately.
  • Probes of TCP ports 0 to 5 are a signature of the sscan program.
  • ssh (22/tcp), smtp (25/tcp), dns (53/tcp/udp), pop-3 (110/tcp), imap (143/tcp), and snmp (161/udp), are favorite target ports. They represent some of the most potentially vulnerable openings to a system, whether intrinsically, due to common configuration errors, or due to known flaws in the software. Because these services are so common, they are good examples of why you want to either not offer them to the outside world, or very carefully offer them with controlled outside access. NetBIOS (137-139/tcp/udp) and Server Message Block (SMB) on Windows (445/tcp) probes are tediously common. They typically pose no threat to a Linux system unless Samba is used on the system. The typical target is a Windows system, in this case, but the scans are all too common.

Stealth Scans

Stealth port scans, by definition, aren’t meant to be detectable. They are based on how the TCP protocol stack responds to unexpected packets, or packets with illegal state flag combinations. For example, consider an incoming packet that has the ACK flag set but has no related connection. If the ACK were sent to a port with a listening server attached, the TCP stack wouldn’t find a related connection and would return a TCP RST message to tell the sender to reset the connection. If the ACK were sent to an unused port, the system would simply return a TCP RST message as an error indication, just as the firewall might return an ICMP error message by default.

The issue is further complicated because some firewalls test only for the SYN flag or the ACK flag. If neither is set, or if the packet contains some other combination of flags, the firewall implementation might pass the packet up to the TCP code. Depending on the TCP state flag combination and the operating system receiving the packet, the system will respond with an RST or with silence. This mechanism can be used to help identify the operating system that the target system is running. In any of these cases, the receiving system isn’t likely to log the event.

Inducing a target host to generate an RST packet in this manner also can be used to map a network, determining the IP addresses of systems listening on the network. This is especially helpful if the target system isn’t a server and its firewall has been set to silently drop unwanted packets.

Avoiding Paranoia: Responding to Port Scans

Firewall logs normally show all kinds of failed connection attempts. Probes are the most common thing you’ll see reported in your logs.

Are people probing your system this often? Yes, they are. Is your system compromised? No, it isn’t. Well, not necessarily. The ports are blocked. The firewall is doing its job. These are failed connection attempts that the firewall denied.

At what point do you personally decide to report a probe? At what point is it important enough to take the time to report it? At what point do you say that enough is enough and get on with your life, or should you be writing abuse@some.system each time? There are no “right” answers. How you respond is a personal judgment call and depends in part on the resources available to you, how sensitive the information at your site is, and how critical the Internet connection is to your site. For obvious probes and scans, there is no clear-cut answer. It depends on your own personality and comfort level how you personally define a serious probe, and your social conscience.

  • With that in mind, these are some workable guidelines.

The most common attempts are a combination of automated probing, mistakes, legitimate attempts based on the history of the Internet, ignorance, curiosity, and misbehaving software.

You can almost always safely ignore individual, isolated, single connection attempts to telnet, ssh, ftp, finger, or any other port for a common service that you’re not providing. Probes and scans are a fact of life on the Internet, are all too frequent, and usually don’t pose a risk. They are kind of like door-to-door salespeople, commercial phone calls, wrong phone numbers, and junk postal mail. For me, at least, there isn’t enough time in the day to respond to each one.

On the other hand, some probers are more persistent. You might decide to add firewall rules to block them completely, or possibly even their entire IP address space.

Scans of a subset of the ports known to be potential security holes are typically the precursor to an attack if an open port is found. More inclusive scans are usually part of a broader scan for openings throughout a domain or subnet. Current hacking tools probe a subset of these ports one after the other.

Occasionally, you’ll see serious hacking attempts. This is unquestionably a time to take action. Write them. Report them. Double-check your security. Observe what they’re doing. Block them. Block their IP address block.

Some system administrators take every occurrence seriously because, even if their machine is secure, other people’s machines might not be. The next person might not even have the capability of knowing that he or she is being probed. Reporting probes is the socially responsible thing to do, for everyone’s sake.

How should you respond to port scans? If you write these people, their postmaster, their uplink service provider network operations center (NOC), or the network address block coordinator, try to be polite. Give them the benefit of the doubt. Overreactions are misplaced more often than not. What might appear as a serious hacking attempt to you is often a curious kid playing with a new program. A polite word to the abuser, root, or postmaster can sometimes take care of the problem. More people need to be educated about Netiquette than need their network accounts rescinded. And they might be innocent of anything. Just as often, the person’s system is compromised and that person has no idea what’s going on and will be grateful for the information.

Probes aren’t the only hostile traffic you’ll see, however. Although probes are harmless in and of themselves, DoS attacks are not.

Denial-of-Service Attacks

DoS attacks are based on the idea of flooding your system with packets to disrupt or seriously degrade your Internet connection, tying up local servers to the extent that legitimate requests can’t be honored or, in the worst case, crashing your system altogether. The two most common results are keeping the system too busy to do anything useful and tying up critical system resources.

You can’t protect against DoS attacks completely. They can take as many different forms as the attacker’s imagination allows. Anything that results in a response from your system, anything that results in your system allocating resources (including logging of the attack), anything that induces a remote site to stop communicating with you—all can be used in a DoS attack.

These attacks usually involve one of several classic patterns, including TCP SYN flooding, ping flooding, UDP flooding, fragmentation bombs, buffer overflows, and ICMP routing redirect bombs.

TCP SYN Flooding

A TCP SYN flood attack consumes your system resources until no more incoming TCP connections are possible (see Figure 2.8). The attack makes use of the basic TCP three-way handshaking protocol during connection establishment, in conjunction with IP source address spoofing.


Figure 2.8 A TCP SYN flood

The attacker spoofs his or her source address as a private address and initiates a connection to one of your TCP-based services. Appearing to be a client attempting to open a TCP connection, the attacker sends you an artificially generated SYN message. Your machine responds by sending an acknowledgment, a SYN-ACK. However, in this case, the address that you’re replying to isn’t the attacker’s address. In fact, because the address is private, there is no one out there to respond. The spoofed host won’t return an RST message to tear down the half-opened connection.

The final stage of TCP connection establishment, receiving an ACK in response, will never happen. Consequently, finite network connection resources are consumed. The connection remains in a half-opened state until the connection attempt times out. The attacker floods your port with connection request after connection request, faster than the TCP timeouts release the resources. If this continues, all resources will be in use and no more incoming connection requests can be accepted. This applies not only to the service being probed, but to all new connections as well.

Several aids are available to Linux users. The first is source address filtering, described previously. This filters out the most commonly used spoofed source addresses, but there is no guarantee that the spoofed address falls within the categories you can anticipate and filter against.

The second is to enable your kernel’s SYN cookie module, a specific retardant to the resource starvation caused by SYN flooding. When the connection queue begins to get full, the system starts responding to SYN requests with SYN cookies rather than SYN-ACKs, and it frees the queue slot. Thus, the queue never fills completely. The cookie has a short timeout; the client must respond to it within a short period before the serving host will respond with the expected SYN-ACK. The cookie is a sequence number that is generated based on the original sequence number in the SYN, the source and destination addresses and ports, and a secret value. If the response to the cookie matches the result of the hashing algorithm, the server is reasonably well assured that the SYN is valid.

Depending on the particular release, you may or may not need to enable the SYN cookie protection within the kernel by using the command echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies. Some distributions and kernel versions require you to explicitly configure the option into the kernel using make config, make menuconfig, or make xconfig and then recompile and install the new kernel.

ping Flooding

Any message that elicits a response from your machine can be used to degrade your network connection by forcing the system to spend most of its time responding. The ICMP echo request message sent by ping is a common culprit. An attack called Smurf, and its variants, forces a system to expend its resources processing echo replies. One method of accomplishing this is to spoof the victim’s source address and broadcast an echo request to an entire network of hosts. A single spoofed request message can result in hundreds or thousands of resulting replies being sent to the victim. Another way of accomplishing a similar result is to install trojans on compromised hosts across the Internet and time them to each send echo requests to the same host simultaneously. Finally, a simple ping flood in which the attacker sends more echo requests and floods the data connection is another method for a DoS, though it’s becoming less common. A typical ping flood is shown in Figure 2.9.


Figure 2.9 A ping flood

Ping of Death

An older exploit called the Ping of Death involved sending very large ping packets. Vulnerable systems could crash as a result. Linux is not vulnerable to this exploit, nor are many other current UNIX operating systems. If your firewall is protecting older systems or personal computers, those systems could be vulnerable.

The Ping of Death exploit gives an idea of how the simplest protocols and message interactions can be used by the creative hacker. Not all attacks are attempts to break into your computer. Some are merely destructive. In this case, the goal is to crash the machine. (System crashes also might be an indicator that you need to check your system for installed trojan programs. You might have been duped into loading a trojan program, but the program itself might require a system reboot to activate.)

ping is a very useful basic networking tool. You might not want to disable ping altogether. In today’s Internet environment, conservative folks recommend disabling incoming ping or at least severely limiting from whom you accept echo requests. Because of ping’s history of involvement in DoS attacks, many sites no longer respond to external ping requests from any but selected sources. This has always seemed to be an overreaction to the relatively small threat of a DoS based on ICMP when compared to the more ubiquitous and dangerous threats against applications and other protocols within the stack.

Dropping ping requests isn’t a solution for the victim host, however. Regardless of how the recipient of the flood reacts to the packets, the system (or network) can still be overwhelmed in the process of inspecting and dropping a flood of requests.

UDP Flooding

The UDP protocol is especially useful as a DoS tool. Unlike TCP, UDP is stateless. Flow-control mechanisms aren’t included. There are no connection state flags. Datagram sequence numbers aren’t used. No information is maintained on which packet is expected next. There is not always a way to differentiate client traffic from server traffic based on port numbers. Without state, there is no way to distinguish an expected incoming response from an unsolicited packet arriving unexpectedly. It’s relatively easy to keep a system so busy responding to incoming UDP probes that no bandwidth is left for legitimate network traffic.

Because UDP services are susceptible to these types of attacks (as opposed to connection-oriented TCP services), many sites disable all UDP ports that aren’t absolutely necessary. As mentioned earlier, almost all common Internet services are TCP based. The firewall we’ll build in Chapter 5, “Building and Installing a Standalone Firewall,” carefully limits UDP traffic to only those remote hosts providing necessary UDP services.

The classic UDP flood attack either involves two victim machines or works in the same way the Smurf ping flood does (see Figure 2.10). A single spoofed packet from the attacker’s UDP echo port, directed to a host’s UDP chargen port, can result in an infinite loop of network traffic. The echo and chargen services are network test services. chargen generates an ASCII string. echo returns the data sent to the port.


Figure 2.10 A UDP flood

Fragmentation Bombs

Different underlying network technologies (such as Ethernet, Asynchronous Transfer Mode [ATM], and token ring) define different limits on the size of the Layer 2 frame. As a packet is passed on from one router to the next along the path from the source machine to the destination machine, network gateway routers might need to cut the packet into smaller pieces, called fragments, before passing them on to the next network. In a legitimate fragmentation, the first fragment contains the usual source and destination port numbers contained in the UDP or TCP transport header. The following fragments do not.

For example, although the maximum theoretical packet length is 65,535 bytes, the maximum Ethernet frame size (Maximum Transmission Unit, or MTU) is 1500 bytes.

When a packet is fragmented, intermediate routers do not reassemble the packet. The packets are reassembled either at the destination host or by its adjacent router.

Because intermediate fragmentation is ultimately more costly than sending smaller, nonfragmented packets, current systems often do MTU discovery with the target host at the beginning of a connection. This is done by sending a packet with the Don't Fragment option set in the IP header options field (the only generally legitimate current use of the IP options field). If an intermediate router must fragment the packet, it drops the packet and returns an ICMP 3 error, fragmentation-required.

One type of fragmentation attack involves artificially constructing very small packets. One-byte packets crash some operating systems. Current operating systems usually test for this condition.

Another use of small fragments is constructing the initial fragment so that the UDP or TCP source and destination ports are contained in the second fragment. (All networks’ MTU sizes are large enough to carry a standard 40-byte IP and transport header.) Packet-filtering firewalls often allow these fragments through because the information that they filter on is not present. This form of attack is useful to get packets through the firewall that would not otherwise be allowed.

The Ping of Death exploit mentioned earlier is an example of using fragmentation to carry an illegally large ICMP message. When the ping request is reconstructed, the entire packet size is larger than 65,535 bytes, causing some systems to crash.

A classic example of a fragmentation exploit is the Teardrop attack. The method can be used to bypass a firewall or to crash a system. The first fragment is constructed to go to an allowed service. (Many firewalls don’t inspect fragments after the first packet.) If it is allowed, the subsequent fragments will be passed through and reassembled by the target host. If the first packet is dropped, the subsequent packets will pass through the firewall, but the end host will have nothing to reconstruct and eventually will discard the partial packet.

The data offset fields in the subsequent fragments can be altered to overwrite the port information in the first fragment to access a disallowed service. The offset also can be altered so that offsets used in packet reassembly turn out to be negative numbers. Because kernel byte-copy routines usually use unsigned numbers, the negative value is treated as a very large positive number; the resulting copy trashes kernel memory and the system crashes.

Firewall machines and machines that do NAT for other local hosts should be configured to reassemble the packets before delivering them to the local target. Some of the iptables features require the system to reassemble packets before forwarding the packet to the destination host, and reassembly is done automatically.

Buffer Overflows

Buffer overflow exploits can’t be protected against by a filtering firewall. The exploits fall into two main categories. The first is simply to cause a system or server to crash by overwriting its data space or runtime stack. The second requires technical expertise and knowledge of the hardware and system software or server version being attacked. The purpose of the overflow is to overwrite the program’s runtime stack so that the call return stack contains a program and a jump to it. This program usually starts up a shell with root privilege.

Many of the current vulnerabilities in servers are a result of buffer overflows. It’s important to install and keep up-to-date all the newest patches and software revisions.

ICMP Redirect Bombs

ICMP redirect message Type 5 tells the target system to change its in-memory routing tables in favor of a shorter route. Redirects are sent by routers to their adjacent hosts. Their intention is to inform the host that a shorter path is available (that is, the host and new router are on the same network, and the new router is the router that the original would route the packet to as its next hop).

Redirects arrive on an almost-daily basis. They rarely originate from the adjacent router. For residential or business sites connected to an ISP, it’s very unlikely that your adjacent router will generate a redirect message.

If your host uses static routing and honors redirect messages, it’s possible for someone to fool your system into thinking that a remote machine is one of your local machines or one of your ISP’s machines, or even to fool your system into forwarding all traffic to some other remote host.

Denial-of-Service Attacks and Other System Resources

Network connectivity isn’t the only concern in DoS attacks. Here are some examples of other areas to keep in mind while configuring your system:

  • Your filesystem can overflow if your system is forced to write enormous numbers of messages to the error logs, or if your system is flooded with many copies of large email messages. You might want to configure resource limits and set up a separate partition for rapidly growing or changing filesystems.

  • System memory, process table slots, CPU cycles, and other resources can be exhausted by repeated, rapid invocations of network services. You can do little about this other than setting any configurable limits for each individual service, enabling SYN cookies, and denying rather than rejecting packets sent to unsupported service ports.

Source-Routed Packets

Source-routed packets employ a rarely used IP option that allows the originator to define the route taken between two machines, rather than letting the intermediate routers determine the path. As with ICMP redirects, this feature can allow someone to fool your system into thinking that it’s talking to a local machine, an ISP machine, or some other trusted host, or to create the necessary packet flow for a man-in-the-middle attack.

Source routing has few legitimate uses in current networks. Some routers ignore the option. Some firewalls discard packets containing the option.

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Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020