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Introducing iOS Auto Layout

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This chapter introduces the core concepts that underpin Auto Layout, Cocoa’s declarative constraint-based descriptive layout system.
This chapter is from the book

Auto Layout re-imagines the way developers create user interfaces. It provides a flexible and powerful system that describes how views and their content relate to each other and to the superviews they occupy. In contrast to older design approaches, this technology offers incredible control over layout, with a wider range of customization than you can get with frames, springs, and struts.

Auto Layout has garnered both a loyal user base and fanatical detractors. Its reputation for difficulty and frustration, particularly when used through Interface Builder (IB), are occasionally merited. Although Xcode 5 vastly improves that situation (by doing away with several baffling and alienating features), this is a technology that continues to evolve toward full maturity.

Auto Layout is a fantastic tool. It does things that earlier technologies could never dream of. From edge case handling to creation of reciprocal relationships between views, Auto Layout introduces immense power. What’s more, Auto Layout is compatible with many of Apple’s most exciting application programming interfaces (APIs), including animations, motion effects, and sprites.

That’s why this book exists. You’re about to learn Auto Layout mastery by example, with plenty of explanations and tips. Instead of struggling with class documentation, you’ll read, in simple steps, how the system works, how to tweak it to make it work better, and why Auto Layout is far more powerful than many developers realize. You’ll discover common design scenarios and discover best practices that make Auto Layout a pleasure rather than a chore to use.


Auto Layout first debuted on iOS in 2012, as part of the iOS 6 release. It also appeared about a year earlier in OS X 10.7 Lion. Intended to replace the older springs-and-struts-based Autosizing, Auto Layout is a new system that builds relationships between views, specifying how views relate to their superviews and to each other.

Auto Layout is based on the Cassowary constraint-solving toolkit. Cassowary was developed at the University of Washington by Greg J. Badros and Alan Borning to address user interface layout challenges. Here’s what the Cassowary SourceForge project page (http://sourceforge.net/p/cassowary/wiki/Home/) says about it:

  • Cassowary is an incremental constraint solving toolkit that efficiently solves systems of linear equalities and inequalities. Constraints may be either requirements or preferences. Re-solving the system happens rapidly, supporting UI applications.

Cassowary was developed around an important interface phenomenon: that inequality and equality relationships occur naturally in user interfaces. Cassowary developed a rule-based system that enabled developers to describe these relationships between views. These relationships were described through constraints. Constraints are rules that describe how one view’s layout is limited with respect to another. For example, a view might occupy only the left half of the screen, or two views might always need to be aligned at their bottoms.

Cassowary offers an automatic solver that transforms its system of constraint-based layout rules (essentially a set of simultaneous linear equations, if you’re a math geek) into view geometries that express those rules. Cassowary’s constraint system is powerful and nuanced. Since its debut, Cassowary has been ported to JavaScript, .NET/Java, Python, Smalltalk, C++, and, via Auto Layout, to Cocoa and Cocoa Touch.

In iOS and OS X, the constraint-powered Auto Layout efficiently arranges the views in your interface. You provide rules, whether through IB or through code, and the Auto Layout system transforms those rules into view frames.

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