Home > Articles > Data > Oracle

Challenges in Developing a Scalable Java Environment with Oracle8I

📄 Contents

  1. Challenges in Developing a Scalable Java Environment with Oracle8I
  2. Speed of Execution
It can be quite difficult to write reliable and scalable multithreaded Java applications. Megh Thakkar discusses the issues that developers must tackle when trying to improve scalability in e-commerce applications.

It can be quite difficult to write reliable and scalable multithreaded Java applications. Megh Thakkar discusses the issues that developers must tackle when trying to improve scalability in e-commerce applications.

One of the key features of the Java language is its support of multithreading. However, it is still quite difficult to write reliable and scalable multithreaded Java applications. This article discusses the issues that developers must tackle when trying to improve scalability in e-commerce applications.

Unlike languages such as C and C++, garbage collection is a major aspect of the Java language's automated storage management mechanism. It eliminates the need for Java developers to allocate and free memory explicitly, which contributes to the overhead of program speed and the footprint.


For an executing Java program, the footprint is affected by many factors:

  • Size of the program

  • Program complexity

  • State objects used by Aurora

  • Capability of the garbage collector and memory manager to cope with the demands of the program

To achieve scalability, it is important to have a minimum incremental per-user session footprint. Oracle's Java Virtual Machine (Aurora) is capable of achieving this requirement by placing read-only data that all users employ, such as Java bytecodes, in shared memory. Different garbage collection algorithms are used, depending on the type of memory. This helps in keeping call and session memory under control.


Oracle JServer is architected for scalability because the JServer sessions are garbage-collected independently, resulting in no multiuser garbage collection bottleneck.

Keep in mind that as a developer, you won't have to worry about all the garbage collection that goes on because it is handled automatically by Aurora. However, it is important to understand that Aurora preserves the state of your Java programs between calls by migrating objects reachable by static variables into session space at the end of the call. This indicates that you should use static variables carefully. Improper and unnecessary use of static variables can place a heavy burden on the memory manager and can effectively reduce the scalability. Session space usage can be controlled by avoiding the use of static variables for instance-specific data. The EndOfCallRegistry notification provided by Aurora can be used to clear static variables at the end of call.

Configuring Memory Usage

Two main init.ora parameters affect the memory usage and performance of Java code:

  • Shared_pool_size—The shared pool is consumed transiently when you use loadjava. It is also used when call specifications are created and is dynamically loaded Java classes are tracked by the system.

  • java_pool_size—The shared in-memory representation of the Java method and class definitions are stored here. These are shared by all the user sessions. In addition, the Java objects that are migrated to session space at the end of the call are also stored here. The java_pool_size must be adjusted based upon the amount of state held in static variables for each session.

Two more init.ora parameters that can affect memory usage per session are as follows:

  • java_soft_sessionspace_limit (default 1MB)—Specifies the "soft" limit for the memory usage per session. If this limit is exceeded, a trace file containing a warning is generated.

  • java_max_sessionspace_size (default 4GB)—Specifies the maximum limit for the memory usage per session. It this limit is exceeded, Aurora kills the session with an out-of-memory failure message. This is a hidden parameter and should not be modified without consulting Oracle support. An improper setting can make your database unstable.

End-of-Call Optimization

The EndOfCallRegistry class maintains a table of thunk/value pairs known as end-of-call callbacks. At the end of a call, the thunk.act (value) is invoked for every thunk/value pair in the table. However, if the end of the call is also the end of session, the callback is not invoked. After the callback is invoked, it is removed from the table. Several important methods of the EndOfCallRegistry class include these:

  • public static void registerCallback(Callback thunk, Object value)—This method installs thunk as an end-of-call callback. At the end of the call, thunk.act (value) will be called for every end-of-call callback. A common variation is to not use the value:

      public static void registerCallback(Callback thunk)

  • static void runCallbacks()—This method should not be called from your code. It is called by the virtual machine at the end of the call for every thunk/value pair registered using registerCallback.

  • public void act(Object value)—This method can be written to do whatever you want for callback purposes, such as notification of the end-of-call.


Any object that you want to register using EndOfCallRegistry.registerCallback must implement the oracle.aurora.memoryManager.Callback interface.

Data structures that are candidates for end-of-call optimization include these:

  • Buffers or caches

  • Static fields

  • Dynamically built data structures

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020