Home > Articles > Security > Network Security

Content Security with Check Point Firewall-1

Content Security provides additional control over what can be accessed through your firewalls. In this sample chapter, Dameon D. Welch-Abernathy explains how to manage content security with Check Point Firewall-1.
This chapter is from the book

In the last chapter, I talked about restricting access based on the user; in this chapter, I talk about restricting access to certain kinds of content. Such restrictions include not allowing people to access certain kinds of sites (e.g., pornography, news), preventing people from accessing specific types of content (e.g., RealAudio, MP3), and scanning content for viruses. I also discuss the various Security Servers for HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and TCP in some detail.

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Know what CVP and UFP are used for

  • Restrict content for HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and generic TCP services

  • Understand the performance issues inherent in Content Security

  • Understand how to tune your FireWall-1 installation to perform well

  • Troubleshoot problems with Content Security

The Security Servers

FireWall-1 normally relies on Stateful Inspection. However, like authentication, the business of virus and content filtering requires more capabilities than can be provided by Stateful Inspection alone. In these cases, FireWall-1 uses the various Security Servers to perform the necessary tasks. In the last chapter, I discussed how they were used for authentication. In this chapter, I look at each individual Security Server a bit more closely and explain how to configure them.

A Word about Licensing and Third-Party Products

All firewall modules can use Content Security. Certain kinds of embedded firewalls cannot use Content Security. However, in order to use more than the rudimentary functions of Content Security in FireWall-1, third-party software is required. Check Point maintains a list of compatible applications and software vendors at http://www.opsec.com.


Inevitably, Check Point recognized that it could not do everything in terms of providing security. Consequently, Check Point created a program called Open Platform for Security (OPSEC), which allows third-party products to "hook in" to Check Point FireWall-1 and provide services. Two of these protocols, Content Vectoring Protocol (CVP) and URL Filtering Protocol (UFP), are discussed in this section. Some of the other OPSEC functions include the following:

  • Suspicious Activity Monitoring Protocol (SAMP): Provides for intrusion detection

  • Log Export API (LEA): Offers the ability to analyze firewall logs

  • Event Log API (ELA): Helps other applications tie into Check Point's alerting mechanisms

  • OPSEC Management Interface (OMI): Allows third-party products to access the security policy

  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): Enables Check Point to use third-party certificate authorities for authentication and encryption

  • Secure Authentication API (SAA): Allows Check Point to use a variety of authentication mechanisms such as hardware-based tokens and biometric authentication

  • High Availability (HA): Provides for highly available firewall servers

  • User-to-Address Mapping (UAM): Helps authenticate and track users more effectively

  • User Authority API (UAA): Offers the ability to pass authentication information to other servers in order to reduce the number of authentication prompts

CVP is used to scan content. It is typically used to scan for viruses, but it can also be used to scan for malicious Java applets or ActiveX controls, depending on which CVP server you decide to use. CVP works this way: A content stream is intercepted by one of the Security Servers. FireWall-1 determines that the content needs to be scanned by the CVP server before allowing the content to be given to the end user. As the content is downloaded through the firewall, it is sent to the CVP server, which typically runs on a separate server from the firewall. The CVP server then takes one of three actions toward the content (this action is configured in the security policy).

  1. Send the content as is, without any modifications.

  2. Send corrected content, with the virus or other offending content removed.

  3. Do not send the content at all.

Table 9.1. Wildcards usable in all resources




Matches any string of any length. For example, *@phoneboy.com matches all e-mail addresses at phoneboy.com.


Matches any single character. For example, pink+@acmelabs.com would match pinky@acmelabs.com but not pinkie@acmelabs.com.

{ ,}

Matches any of the listed strings. For example, brain@{ acmelabs,animaniacs} .com would match both brain@acmelabs.com and brain@animaniacs.com.

UFP is used to filter HTTP traffic destined for the Internet based on URLs and the categories under which they fall. As a user requests a URL in his or her Web browser, FireWall-1 uses the HTTP Security Server to check that URL against a UFP server, which returns the category for the URL. Based on that category and the defined security policy, FireWall-1 either permits the connection to the URL or rejects it. This allows, say, Christian organizations to filter non-Christian content or for workplaces to filter pornography.

Resources and Wildcards

Resources are simply a way to match a specific kind of content and then perform some action on it. Some resources are matched based on a query to a UFP server. Others are matched based on specific resources that you define.

The wildcards listed in Table 9.1 can be used in all resources. SMTP provides an additional wildcard, which is discussed in the SMTP Security Server section later in this chapter.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020