Home > Articles > Web Services > XML

This chapter is from the book

Bringing It All Together

Next is the JSP that will bring everything together. This JSP will connect to a database and execute a statement that will produce a ResultSet. After that, the ResultSet will be passed into the newly created RStoXML and used to obtain a JDOM representation. This will then be transformed with a stylesheet, and the results output.

The TableSort.xsl stylesheet will create an HTML table whose label cells are links. Each of these links will provide the column number in the query string, so that when the string is followed, the JSP will obtain this parameter from the URL. Once obtained, that value will be passed into the stylesheet to result in the appropriate sort.

After parsing the import statements, DBtoXML.jsp parses the query string to find the column number to sort on. If this parse results in an error, the default defined in the JSP will be used:

<%  // 1. get parameters from url
    int sort_by;
        sort_by = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("sort"));
    } catch(NumberFormatException e){
        //if invalid or nonexistent parameter, sort by RCD_lname
        sort_by = 1;

The page then initializes the variables that will be used throughout the rest of the page. These variables include those for database processing, such as the query statement and the XSLT stylesheet filename.

After this, the page will connect to the database, execute the SQL statement, return a ResultSet, and release the resources used. These statements have been explained previously, and will not be re-explained here.

After the ResultSet has been obtained, the process of conversion to a JDOM representation is started through the creation of an RStoXML object:

// create a resultsetbuilder to transform resultset to XML
RStoXML rsb = new RStoXML(rs, "ROOT", "RECORD");

Two constructors exist for RStoXML. One uses all the defaults of the class, and therefore only requires the ResultSet parameter. The other, shown here, takes a ResultSet and two Strings as parameters. The first String parameter sets the root element name of the resulting JDOM representation, and the other sets the name of the elements that will each represent one record:

//create the XML from resultset
org.jdom.Document jdomdoc = rsb.build();
rs = null;

The build() method is then invoked upon the object that will cause the creation of the JDOM representation, and the resources used in the ResultSet are released.

If any properties are to be set, such as setAllAttribute(), the setter methods must be called before the build() method is invoked. Otherwise, all the class defaults are used.

Now that the JDOM representation is available, it's time to create the Transformer object to do the transformation. This Transformer is created with the stylesheet previously defined by the variable xsl:

//create transformer
Transformer transformer = TransformerFactory.newInstance()
         .newTransformer(new StreamSource(xsl));

With the help of the newly created Transformer, the two parameters that exist at the root level of the XSL stylesheet are set as shown below. The first is the column number that the resulting table will be sorted on, and the second is the name of the page that the linked table labels should be directed to. The presence of this parameter enables the stylesheet to be completely generic and not bound to any dataset, column names, or page names.

transformer.setParameter("Sort", new Integer(sort_by));
transformer.setParameter("Page", "DBtoXML.jsp");

With the parameters set, the stylesheet is ready to transform the JDOM representation. Before this occurs, a JDOMResult object is created to hold the results of the transformation. It is now time to transform() the JDOM representation of the ResultSet with the stylesheet using the Transformer object. Again, we release the resources used by the jdomdoc source object after it is no longer useful:

JDOMResult jdomresults = new JDOMResult();
transformer.transform(new JDOMSource(jdomdoc), jdomresults);
jdomdoc = null;

The results of the transformation are now in jdomresults and need to be output. An easy way of doing this is through the use of the XMLOutputter class found in the org.jdom.output package. This class will format the JDOM document into a stream through which it can be output to the user through the output of the JSP. The Document of the transformation results are obtained and output:

//create outputter to output results
        XMLOutputter output = new XMLOutputter("   ", true);
        //output the results
        Document docResults = jdomresults.getDocument();
        output.output(docResults, out);

Notice that the constructor used here for XMLOutputter takes two parameters. These parameters determine the indentation, and whether new lines will be included in the output. Through the use of these parameters, the tidiness of the output HTML can be altered. The settings chosen here will cause the output HTML to be formatted in a readable form.

After handling some possible exceptions that might occur, the page is complete. DBtoXML.jsp can be found in its entirety in Listing 11.5.

Listing 11.5 Complete DBtoXML.jsp File

<%@page import = "java.sql.*,
        xmlbook.chapter11.*" %>
<head><title>DB to XML and XSL</title></head>
<%  // 1. get parameters from url
    int sort_by;
        sort_by = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("sort"));
    } catch(NumberFormatException e){
    //if invalid or nonexistent parameter, sort by RCD_lname
        sort_by = 1;

    // 2. Initialize other variables
    String final_status   = "";
    String db_query       = "select RCD_lname, RCD_fname, ";
           db_query       +="DATE_FORMAT(RCD_dob, '%Y-%m-%d') as RCD_dob , ";
           db_query       +="RCD_clinic, RCD_color from reportclientdata";
    String db_location    = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/xmlbook";
    String db_driver      = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver";
    String stylesheet     = "TableSort.xsl";

    // 3. Make a database connection
    Connection db_connection = null;
    Statement db_statement = null;
    ResultSet rs = null;
        db_connection = DriverManager.getConnection(db_location);
        db_statement = db_connection.createStatement();

        //get a resultset
        rs = db_statement.executeQuery(db_query);
    catch (ClassNotFoundException e){
        final_status  = "Error: Unable to create database drive class.";
        final_status += " <br />" +  e.toString();
    catch(SQLException e){
        final_status = "Error: Unable to make database connection";
        final_status += "or execute statement.";
        final_status += " <br />" +  e.toString();
    {  /* We must close the database connection now */
        {   if (db_connection != null)
            { db_connection.close(); }
        catch (SQLException e)
        {   final_status  = "Error: Unable to close database connection.";
            final_status += " <br />" +  e.toString();
        // create a resultsetbuilder to transform resultset to XML
        RStoXML rsxml = new RStoXML(rs, "ROOT", "RECORD");

        //create the XML from recordset
        org.jdom.Document jdomdoc = rsxml.build();
        rs = null;

        //get the stylesheet
        String path = request.getServletPath();
        path = path.substring(0,path.indexOf("DBtoXML.jsp")) ;
        String  xsl  = application.getRealPath(path + stylesheet);

        //create transformer
        Transformer transformer = TransformerFactory.newInstance()
                 .newTransformer(new StreamSource(xsl));
        transformer.setParameter("Sort", new Integer(sort_by));
        transformer.setParameter("Page", "DBtoXML.jsp");
        //transformer.setParameter("NFilter", new Integer(nFilter_by));
        //transformer.setParameter("CFilter", cFilter_by);

        JDOMResult jdomresults = new JDOMResult();
        transformer.transform(new JDOMSource(jdomdoc), jdomresults);
        jdomdoc = null;

        //create outputter to output results
        XMLOutputter output = new XMLOutputter("   ", true);
        //output the results
        Document docResults = jdomresults.getDocument();
        output.output(docResults, out);
    catch (TransformerFactoryConfigurationError e) {
        final_status = "Error: Unable to create factory to transform ";
        final_status = "XSL and XML.";
        final_status += "<br />" +  e.toString();
    catch (TransformerException e) {
        final_status = "Error: Unable to transform XSL and XML.";
        final_status += "<br />" +  e.toString();
    catch (JDOMException e)
    {   final_status  = "Error: Unable to create XML from database query.";
        final_status += "<br />" +  e.toString();

    if(final_status != "")
        out.print("<br><font color=\"red\"><H2>" + final_status +


InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020