Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

10.8 Food for Thought

  1. Who are the stakeholders vying for control on your project? Do you foresee, or are you experiencing, conflicts among these various stakeholders' goals? If so, how will you engage the relevant stakeholders in addressing the conflict?

  2. How can you strike the balance you need on your project between the liabilities and the benefits of an open, COTS-based approach? Are there aspects of your system that are not amenable to this new approach?

  3. How do you currently estimate your costs? If you use a work-breakdown structure (WBS), think about how open systems and the use of COTS products affect that WBS. Are some activities unchanged? Are others new? For the activities that you've done before but will be somehow changed by the use of COTS products and an open systems approach, how will they change? What do you expect to be your primary cost factors?

  4. Figure 10.3 Comparison of unit reproduction costs.

  5. You are talking to a new acquaintance about the potential cost savings of COTS-based and open systems. He argues: "But if I build it, I'll bet my unit reproduction costs are less than with COTS products, where you pay N times the cost of one, unless you get a site license." And he neatly draws the diagram shown in Figure 10.3. How do you respond? What factors and considerations might he be missing? (Hint: There's more to life than copying costs.)

  6. Next, you and this acquaintance discuss rates of change associated with product upgrades. He draws the diagram shown in Figure 10.4. Do you agree with his argument that there is an optimal rate of change? What do you think the optimal range is for your system?

  7. Figure 10.4 Comparison of rates of change.

  8. What do you think the potential is for finding other projects with similar needs and interests with which you can share responsibilities and costs? What approaches can you use to convince people on those projects to work with you?

  9. Creating source code is very different from taking the products of others and making them work together. What is the difference in the mindset and temperament required? Do you have people with the skills and the inclination to take a "black-box" approach to integration?

  10. How would you seek out a contracting officer who is capable of taking a progressive approach? If you don't have any who are known for this in your organization now, how could you go about "creating" one?

  11. An open, COTS-based approach is new for most people. What kinds of incentives do you have in place now for your own personnel and for your contractors or consultants, if you use any, to encourage them to take on this new challenge successfully? If you already have a contract in place, what techniques can you devise to motivate the contractor to change to an open, COTS-based approach within the terms of the existing contract?

  12. The need for market research has been noted at many points. But must every program conduct such market research? If so, duplication of effort will result in significant costs. Develop a strategy for your organization to share costs associated with market research. How would you grade yourself on your success at this?

  13. You are told to decrease your staff by 10 percent. From what job categories will you make the cuts? Suppose that you are told instead to make the 10 percent cut but to increase the use of open systems and COTS products by 25 percent over the next three years. How does your answer change? Do you think you can get the cuts reversed to achieve the 25 percent increase?

  14. You manage an acquisition project and have been told to transition to considerably greater use of open systems and COTS products. Develop a transition plan for a new organization to support this new approach. What's the new organization look like? What are your cost and schedule estimates for completing the transition? How will you manage ongoing work during the _transition?

  15. What changes would you make in your organization to handle the standards and COTS product acquisition activities more efficiently? What criteria do you look for in the leadership position(s)?

  16. Develop a psychological profile that can identify a successful manager for a COTS-based, open system acquisition project. How would the profile differ if you were looking for a manager for a traditional development effort?

  17. You are in charge of a division that has several projects doing open, COTS-based acquisition. Does this change how individual projects are normally staffed? For example, do you take some staff from each project to put on a corporate COTS product IPT (integrated product team) that is a resource for all the projects? What are the pros and cons of this approach? Has power changed in the organization?

  18. Are you surprised that the movie Gandhi is not on the list of top ten films influencing management style (page 198)? Why or why not?

  19. Think about your management and sponsors, too. What if they want you to use open, COTS-based systems when it's not appropriate? How will you convince them? Conversely, what if you want to use an open, COTS-based approach and they are resistant? What could you do to reassure them?

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020