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Answer Review Questions

Answer the following review questions. You can find the answers at the end of this chapter.

  1. Virtualization technology is often implemented as operating systems and applications that run in software. Quite often, it is implemented as a virtual machine. Of the following, which can be a security benefit when using virtualization?
    1. Patching a computer will patch all virtual machines running on the computer.
    2. If one virtual machine is compromised, none of the other virtual machines can be compromised.
    3. If a virtual machine is compromised, the adverse effects can be compartmentalized.
    4. Virtual machines cannot be affected by hacking techniques.
  2. Eric wants to install an isolated operating system. What is the best tool to use?
    1. Virtualization
    2. UAC
    3. HIDS
    4. NIDS
  3. Where would you turn off file sharing in Windows Vista?
    1. Control Panel
    2. Local Area Connection
    3. Network and Sharing Center
    4. Firewall properties
  4. Which option enables you to hide ntldr?
    1. Enable Hide Protected Operating System Files
    2. Disable Show Hidden Files and Folders
    3. Disable Hide Protected operating system Files
    4. Remove the –R Attribute
  5. Which of the following should be implemented to harden an operating system? (Select the two best answers.)
    1. Install the latest service pack.
    2. Install Windows Defender.
    3. Install a virtual operating system.
    4. Execute PHP scripts.
  6. In Windows XP and Windows Vista, what is the best file system to use?
    1. FAT
    2. NTFS
    3. DFS
    4. FAT32
  7. A customer's computer uses FAT16 as its file system. What file system can you upgrade it to when using the convert command?
    1. NTFS
    2. HPFS
    3. FAT32
    4. NFS
  8. Which of the following is not an advantage of NTFS over FAT32?
    1. NTFS supports file encryption.
    2. NTFS supports larger file sizes.
    3. NTFS supports larger volumes.
    4. NTFS supports more file formats.
  9. What is the deadliest risk of a virtual computer?
    1. If a virtual computer fails, all other virtual computers immediately go offline.
    2. If a virtual computer fails, the physical server goes offline.
    3. If the physical server fails, all other physical servers immediately go offline.
    4. If the physical server fails, all the virtual computers immediately go offline.
  10. Virtualized browsers can protect the OS that they are installed within from which of the following?
    1. DDoS attacks against the underlying OS
    2. Phishing and spam attacks
    3. Man-in-the-middle attacks
    4. Malware installation from Internet websites
  11. Which of the following needs to be backed up on a domain controller to recover Active Directory?
    1. User data
    2. System files
    3. Operating system
    4. System state
  12. Which of the following should you implement to fix a single security issue on the computer?
    1. Service pack
    2. Support website
    3. Patch
    4. Baseline
  13. An administrator wants to reduce the size of the attack surface of Windows server 2003. Which of the following is the best answer to accomplish this?
    1. Update antivirus software.
    2. Install service packs
    3. Disable unnecessary services.
    4. Install network intrusion detection systems.
  14. You finished installing the operating system for a home user. What are three good methods to implement in order to secure that operating system? (Select the three best answers.)
    1. Install the latest service pack.
    2. Install a hardware- or software-based firewall.
    3. Install the latest patches.
    4. Install pcAnywhere.
  15. Which of the following is a security reason to implement virtualization in your network?
    1. To isolate network services and roles
    2. To analyze network traffic
    3. To add network services at lower costs
    4. To centralize patch management

Answers and Explanations

  1. C. By using a virtual machine (which is one example of a virtual instance) any ill effects can be compartmentalized to that particular virtual machine, usually without any ill effects to the main operating system on the computer. Patching a computer does not automatically patch virtual machines existing on the computer. Other virtual machines can be compromised, especially if nothing is done about the problem. Finally, virtual machines can definitely be affected by hacking techniques. Be sure to secure them!
  2. A. Virtualization enables a person to install operating systems (or applications) in an isolated area of the computer's hard drive, separate from the computer's main operating system.
  3. C. The Network and Sharing Center is where you can disable file sharing in Windows Vista.
  4. A. To hide ntldr you need to enable the Hide Protected Operating System Files checkbox. Keep in mind that you should have already enabled the Show Hidden Files and Folders radio button.
  5. A and B. Two ways to harden an operating system include installing the latest service pack and installing Windows defender. However, virtualization is a separate concept altogether, and PHP scripts will generally not be used to harden an operating system.
  6. B. NTFS is the most secure file system for use with Windows XP and Windows Vista. FAT and FAT32 are older file systems, and DFS is the distributed file system used in more advanced networking.
  7. A. The Convert command is used to upgrade FAT and FAT32 volumes to the more secure NTFS without loss of data. HPFS is the High Performance File System developed by IBM and not used by Windows. NFS is the Network File System, something you would see in a storage area network.
  8. D. NTFS and FAT32 support the same number of file formats.
  9. D. The biggest risk of running a virtual computer is that it will go offline immediately if the server that it is housed on fails. All other virtual computers on that particular server will also go offline immediately.
  10. D. The beauty of a virtualized browser is that regardless of whether a virus or other malware damages it, the underlying operating system will remain unharmed. The virtual browser can be deleted and a new one can be created; or if the old virtual browser was backed up previous to the malware attack, it can be restored.
  11. D. The system state needs to be backed up on a domain controller to recover the active directory database in the future. The system state includes user data and system files but does not include the entire operating system. If a server fails, the operating system would have to be reinstalled, and then the system state would need to be restored.
  12. C. A patch can fix a single security issue on a computer. A service pack addresses many issues and rewrites many files on a computer; it may be overkill to use a service pack when only a patch is necessary. You might obtain the patch from a support website. A baseline can measure a server or a network and to obtain averages of usage.
  13. C. Quite often, operating system manufacturers such as Microsoft refer to the attack surface as all the services that run on the operating system. By conducting an analysis of which services are necessary and which are unnecessary, an administrator can find out which ones need to be disabled, thereby reducing the attack surface. Service packs, antivirus software, and network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) are good tools to use to secure an individual computer and the network but do not help to reduce the size of the attack surface of the operating system.
  14. A, B, and C. After installing an operating system, it's important to install the latest service pack, patches, and a firewall. These three methods can help to secure the operating system. However, pcAnywhere can actually make a computer less secure and should be installed only if the user requests it. PcAnywhere is just one of many examples of remote control software.
  15. A. Virtualization of computer servers enables a network administrator to isolate the various network services and roles that a server may play. Analyzing network traffic would have to do more with assessing risk and vulnerability and monitoring and auditing. Adding network services at lower costs deals more with budgeting than with virtualization; although, virtualization can be less expensive. Centralizing patch management has to do with hardening the operating systems on the network scale.
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