Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

  • Print
  • + Share This

5.4 Understanding the Environment

The initial phase of the methodology consists of learning what kind of hardware (clients and servers), software (operating systems, middleware, and applications), network connectivity, and network protocols, are present in the environment. It also involves the identification of peak usage periods, management structures, and service-level agreements. This information is gathered by various means including user group meetings, audits, questionnaires, help desk records, planning documents, interviews, and other information-gathering techniques [7].

Table 5.1 summarizes the main elements of a C/S system that must be catalogued and understood before the remaining steps of the methodology can be taken.

Table 5.1 Elements in Understanding the Environment



Client platform

Quantity and type

Server platform

Quantity, type, configuration, and function


Type (e.g., TP monitors)




Main types of applications

Network connectivity

Network connectivity diagram showing all LANs, WANs, network technologies, routers, servers, and number of clients per LAN segment

Network protocols

List of network protocols being routed.

Service-level agreements

Existing SLAs per applications. When formal SLAs are absent, industry standards can be used (see[4])

LAN management and support

LAN management support structure, size expertise, and responsiveness to users

Procurement procedures

Elements of the procurment process, justification mechanisms for acquisitions, expenditure limits, authorization mechanisms, and duration of the procurement cycle

An example of the outcome of the Understanding the Environment step for the C/S of Fig. 5.3 would be as follows.

Clients and servers. The network consists of four LAN segments (three 10 Mbps Ethernets and one 16 Mbps Token Ring) interconnected through a 100 Mbps FDDI ring. LAN 3 is connected to the Internet. LAN 1 has a Windows NT-based server and 120 Windows NT-based PC clients. LAN 2 has a RISC-type Unix server and 50 Unix workstations. This file server uses a storage box with several

Figure 5.3. Example C/S system for capacity planning methodology.

RAID-5 disks and a capacity of 512 Gbytes. LAN 3 runs an ftp proxy server, a telnet proxy server, a Web proxy server, and the e-mail server on a Windows NT server-based dual processor high-end PC-based machine. This LAN supports 100 Windows NT clients. Finally, LAN 4 has a Windows NT-based file server and an SQL database server running Oracle to support enterprise-wide mission-critical applications. This LAN has 100 Windows NT-based clients. BEA's Tuxedo [1] is used as a Transaction Processing (TP) Monitor to support client/server transaction management.

Applications. Workstations on LAN 2 are mostly used by researchers of the R&D department engaged in running computer simulations of molecular biology experiments. These researchers store all their files in the file server in LAN 2. They use e-mail, ftp, telnet, and Web services from the proxy server on LAN 3. Clients on LANs 1, 3, and 4 split their time between running office automation applications (e.g., word processing, spreadsheets, and presentation preparation packages) and running various types of client/server transactions to support sales, marketing, personnel, accounting, and financial activities. These C/S transactions use a TP monitor and the SQL server on LAN 4. All users in LANs 1, 3, and 4 read e-mail and access the Web through the proxy server on LAN 3. The company's employees go through Web-based training courses hosted at the server on LAN 3. Most of the accesses to these applications come from clients on LANs 1, 3, and 4. Network connectivity and protocols. The network connectivity map is given in Fig. 5.3. The Internet and transport protocols used throughout all networks is TCP/IP.

Service-level agreements. There are no formal SLAs established, but users start to complain if response times exceed 2 sec for trivial C/S transactions and 5 sec for the more complex transactions. Response times at e-mail and Web services has not been a problem.

LAN management and support. Each of the four user LANs (LANs 1{4) have a dedicated team of LAN and system administrators. The number of system administrators for each of these LANs is 6, 3, 5, and 6, respectively. There is also a Database Administrator (DBA) for the database managed by the SQL server and three network specialists that constantly monitor the performance on the FDDI ring and are responsible for overall network management functions such as assigning IP addresses to subnetworks, managing routing tables, maintaining network security, and verifying the connection to the Internet.

Procurement procedures. As an example, procurement decisions could be made by an Information Technology Committee, headed by the Chief Information Officer (CIO) of the company and composed of four user representatives and four system administrators (one from each LAN), which reviews applications for hardware and software upgrades. Decisions are made based on budget availability and on how well the requests are justified. The average procurement cycle for items over $5,000 is 2 mo. Expenditures below $5,000 can be made using a much faster procedure that takes two business days on the average.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020