Home > Articles > Business & Management > Global Business

This chapter is from the book


Sustainable economic growth increases individuals' and governments' confidence. Ideas once expressed only amid casual conversation are now incorporated in official statements.

Over the past five years government officials around the world have repeatedly expressed a particular way of thinking about energy security. The world tends to view energy security issues through the lenses of developed economies. These economies were able, through government actions, to establish an energy status quo that, though it's been stable, was based on the premise that developed-economy leaders could dictate the politics of the international energy trade. At the same time, smaller nations, because they lacked the financial and economic muscle, weren't invited to participate in the decision-making process. They had to go with the flow.

Today China and India are at the forefront of a global effort to change this arrangement. Chinese and Indian political elites now exercise their right to strike energy deals according to their own interests and needs rather than the geopolitical considerations of others. Although this doesn't mean the sensitivities of their partners are discarded, the fact remains that it's incomprehensible to Indians, for instance, why their relationship with Iran is used by the US as a pressure point, particularly as more than 12 percent of India's oil imports come from Iran. To Indians the issue for the US is purely geopolitical—namely, the nuclear threat that Iran may in the future pose to Western interests. India has co-existed with an extremely unstable and economically deficient neighbor with a nuclear arsenal for a long time. This country, Pakistan, has offered its expertise on nuclear weapons, under the guidance of the notorious A. Q. Khan, to an assortment of rogue states, while all the time being an ally of the US in its "global war on terror."13 Indian officials, as well as many Indian businesses, have often yielded to US pressures on these issues, against their will, because the US is a necessary ally and economic partner. But US actions are increasingly viewed in India the same way Western commentators view "resource nationalism." In other words, states that control natural resources are applying pressure to consumers via threats to cut supplies.

The US usually uses access to its markets as well as access to nuclear and other technologies as negotiating levers, what government officials and elites describe as "strategic interests." India will soon have enough standing to defy similar US requests that it considers contrary to Indian interests, particularly if Indians don't perceive their actions as threatening regional and global security and stability.

China and Russia are the main proponents of the concept of polycentricism. Their call is to return to the more stable situation that prevailed in the immediate aftermath of World War II, during which the US wasn't venturing around the world à la Gulliver, trying to "take care of business." The emerging Asian powers envisage a more subtle, diplomatic approach as the best road forward. Political scientist G. John Ikenberry expressed a similar idea in 2001. He noted that

  • The institutional model of order building is based on a potential bargain between unequal states after a war...what makes the institutional deal attractive is that the leading state agrees to restrain its own potential for domination and abandonment in exchange for greater compliance by subordinate states. Both sides are better off with a constitutional order than in an order based on the constant threat of the indiscriminate and arbitrary exercise of power.14

The Chinese, for obvious reasons, have been very vocal in assuring the world that its rise will be peaceful. Its official policy position, expressed in a white paper on defense, indicates that China

  • [W]ill encourage the advancement of security dialogues and cooperation with other countries, oppose the enlargement of military alliances, and acts of aggression and expansion. China will never seek hegemony or engage in military expansion now or in the future, no matter how developed it becomes.15

The US has been heavily involved in Asia since the mid 1800s, when marines landed in Guangzhou to protect American citizens from Chinese mobs. It became the dominate force in the region after its conquest of The Philippines in 1899. Forty-five years later the US ended World War II in Asia by guaranteeing that Japan had no choice but to surrender and making it essentially a vassal state. The US turned the island into a stationary carrier from which the rest of Asia could easily be accessed. As Professor Yoshihide Soeya of Keio University has said, there are three traumas from which the Japanese people are still reeling: defeat in the war, occupation by Americans, and the solidification of their country's subordination to the US.16

Nevertheless, the US, acting as the guarantor of regional stability, served Asia well. Its presence worked for the region overall, as long as communism was seen as a threat and the Japanese atrocities of old, mainly in China and Korea, were still fresh in people's minds. Neither of these conditions is present now. China's economic ascent is seen as a positive for the region, and the majority of Asian governments are more than willing to cooperate with China; a developing Chinese economy is good for their own economies. China is, after all, a neighbor state that will be there forever. Good relations are the right way to go.

The US has responded negatively to geopolitical change and the idea of polycentricism. America's ideas about its own exceptional status and the universality of its values are expressed prominently in dealings with other states. Although these ideas and the policies crafted to further them aren't new, the way they've been carried out over the past 10 to 15 years, combined with the economic rise of China, has created notable discomfort for governments around the world. Many countries are starting to identify with John Adams' words about the British and their handling of peace negotiations: "The pride and vanity of that nation is a disease; it is a delirium; it has been flattered and inflamed so long by themselves and others that it perverts everything."17

George H. W. Bush, whose gentlemanly approach to diplomacy advanced US interests around the world without eliciting serious opposition, noted in 1975 while in China as the head of the United States Liaison Office (USLO), that

  • The American people do not have any concept of how others around the world view America, we think we are good, honorable, decent, freedom-loving. Others are firmly convinced that...we are embarking on policies that are anathema to them.18

Although this is the nature of international politics—not everyone looks at an issue the same way or has the same interests—it is still the case in America that people are genuinely puzzled when they find out that others don't necessarily see eye to eye with the US on a lot of issues. But geopolitical and economic developments are gradually laying this mind-set to rest. Probably—eventually—the US will once again adhere to the principles of its founders, who erected their constitutional regime on the sound proposition that power must be checked and balanced.19

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020