Home > Articles > Web Services > SOA

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Arrival of Web Services and SOA

Earlier in this chapter we highlighted the Remote Procedure Call and its influence in the distributed communication technologies such as CORBA, DCOM, and J2EE. The protocols used in these technologies, IIOP, ORPC, and RMI/IIOP, respectively, are the binary protocols used for communication between remote objects over the corporate networks. This laid the foundations for a radically new protocol and resulted in the development of extensible vocabularies such as SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI. These extensible languages are referred to as First Generation Web Services. These languages provide fundamental level support for enterprise applications and enable them to be web service-oriented at the functional level. However, for enterprises, nonfunctional requirements take priority over functional requirements. The web services extensions that attempt to meet the nonfunctional aspects of enterprise requirements are referred to as the Second Generation Web Services extensions, and we explore them briefly in the following sections.

First Generation Web Services

As you may recall from Chapter 1, the three pillars of web services are SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI. These technologies are advanced vocabularies of the XML and use other supportive XML vocabularies such as Namespace and XML Schema Definition (XSD). Each of these web services vocabularies address different aspects of enterprise information interchange in an interoperable manner.


This new text-based messaging technology enables applications to exchange information in the form of messages. The messages can be interchanged in a synchronous or asynchronous manner. The design of SOAP message structure is such that the messages can be interchanged between applications through RPC invocation or through MOM technologies.


WSDL enables description of the service through the use of a set of specialized XML elements. The service description includes the data types interchanged (this is programming language-independent), name of the service, parameters passed, transport protocol used, and so on. WSDL also enables several related services to aggregate into a service suite.


UDDI is a specification and service that helps businesses provide a platform in such a way that the service requesters can discover service providers, zero in on appropriate partners, and enable an agreed-upon business automation. UDDI, like WSDL, uses advanced XML vocabularies to define the business and service information in an elaborate manner. As a service, UDDI registries enable the service requester to store all necessary information regarding business and service information that is suitably categorized as per industry standards.

The Second Generation Web Services

Enterprise solution requirements might be categorized into functional requirements and nonfunctional requirements. Nonfunctional requirements govern the architectural and design aspects of any enterprise solution. There are many nonfunctional requirements, and one enterprise's nonfunctional requirements list and priorities would be different from another. Some of the nonfunctional requirements that are common to most of the enterprises are

  • Security
  • Reliability
  • Availability
  • Quality of service
  • Business process
  • Choreography

Several web services extensions and frameworks have been proposed by various industry consortia, and there is more than one web service extension proposed by competing industry consortia. These extensions and frameworks address one or more nonfunctional enterprise requirements Although there is a general consensus among the industry consortia on some of the web service extensions, this is not the case for all web service extensions.

Some of the important web services extensions are

  • WS-Security Specifications and Frameworks
  • WS-Addressing Specification
  • WS-Reliable Messaging Specifications
  • WS-Business Process Execution Language
  • WS-Choreography Definition Language
  • WS-Metadata Exchange Specifications

SOA Using Web Services

We have already discussed how the arrival of XML and related technologies brought in a paradigm shift for enterprise solutions. The core web services technologies provided a sound foundation for the functional aspects of the services, its description, and invocation. The second generation web services extensions, on the other hand, brought the nonfunctional requirements into the web services fold. Together, web services technologies provide several key features and advantages that the earlier technological solutions could not. Interoperability, for example, enables a clear separation of the service interface from the execution environment. Therefore, SOA implemented using web services technologies is likely to provide a leading edge over any other technological implementation.

Using web services, it is easier to change service compositions of the enterprise application and implement the changes at a lower cost. These features help the enterprise project developers to quickly respond to the dynamic requirements of the enterprise business needs.

Benefits and Challenges with SOA

SOA with web services as an implementation route brings a host of advantages to the enterprises. This doesn't necessarily mean that service orientation of the enterprise architecture is void of any disadvantages. Some of the significant pros and cons associated with SOA are as follows:


  • Rapid integration of enterprise applications—departments and partners
  • Efficient business automation
  • Enhanced corporate agility
  • Faster time to market for new products and services
  • Reduced IT costs for the corporate long-term investment
  • Improved operational efficiency of the business processes
  • Better ROI


  • Identifying the need for SOA
  • Significant investment in resources on rearchitecting the core IT assets
  • Identifying the right kind of governance model for the enterprise
  • Mind share for the right kind of professionals and stake holders
  • Legacy system issues—some legacy applications cannot be service oriented

Notice here that the issues and challenges for SOA relate more to the cultural aspect of the problem than the technological or business aspects. Of course, issues such as integration of unsupported legacy systems to service orientation remain as bottlenecks to the implementation of SOA.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020