Home > Articles > Software Development & Management > Agile

Breaking the Project Management Triangle

Niel Nickolaisen, coauthor of Stand Back and Deliver: Accelerating Business Agility, explains how he abandoned the project management triangle in favor of a new version, so much more meaningful that he gave it his own name.
Like this article? We recommend

My first real IT job was as the manager of a large, put-the-business-at-risk systems project. In this new role, I thought that the project management triangle was my best friend. At the beginning of the project, I would calmly sit down with my project customer, draw a triangle with Cost, Time, and Scope at the corners, and explain the interplay among these three project constraints. My explanation went something like this:

For any project, these three constraints are interdependent. If you decide that you want to increase the project scope, we will need to increase the time/cost combination. If you decide that you need to shrink the timeline, we will need to reduce the scope or increase the cost (or both).

I depended on my project management triangle "best friend" to back me up when my project customer increased the scope, decreased the budget, or reduced the timeline.

However, in practice, the project management triangle failed me. It seemed that my project customers usually forgot all about the triangle when they started to change their minds. They wanted it all! They wanted to increase the scope but hold to the time and budget constant. Or they wanted to reduce the cost but keep the scope and timeline the same. When I tried to remind my customers about the project management triangle I had drawn for them, they nodded their heads but then assured me that they had every confidence that my team and I could pull off the latest project miracle.

Being good soldiers, my team and I would embark on a death march to deliver that latest project miracle. Sometimes we succeeded. Sometimes we failed. Whether success or failure, I soon realized that I needed to do something differently—before my team and I burned out from being project heroes.

Breaking the Triangle: A Case Study

Not wanting to repeat or exacerbate my recent experience, I started by reflecting honestly on recent death march successes and failures. As I thought through the common issues with the specific project triangles, the light went on. Instead of focusing on the interplay among scope, time, and budget, I needed to change the way we defined and managed scope! Instead of managing the project triangle, I needed to break the triangle! Let me give you an example.

In one particularly brutal death march project, we were implementing a supply chain, inventory management, and procurement system for a specialty retailer. I had several project customers, but the real driver behind the project was the vice president of operations. Over the years, the company had defined some very unique business rules. In particular, the company had developed and supported (in its highly customized legacy systems) a unique way of handling drop shipments.

Most retailers handle drop shipments by creating a single purchase order with multiple ship-to locations. The supplier fills the order by shipping the specified products to the individual locations and then sends one invoice to the retailer, which pays for the entire order with a single payment.

In this case, however, the retailer replenished its retail stores by placing a separate purchase order for each store. The supplier would ship those orders separately to the individual stores and then send an invoice for each of the purchase orders it received (one for each store). The retailer would process a payable item for each of the multiple invoices it received from the supplier.

The "requirement" from the vice president of operations was for us to replicate the retailer's unique drop-shipping business rules when we designed, built, and implemented the new system. As you might expect, meeting this requirement required significant customizations—not just to the procurement system, but also the accounts payable system. For the perspective of the project management triangle, this requirement was a stake in the ground of the "scope" corner. With this corner fixed, we would have to adjust time and budget to compensate. But what value would we generate with this customization? Would it win us new customers or help us keep customers? Would our customers even know what business rules we used to replenish stores? It seemed to me that this customization just put our project timeline and budget at risk.

At first, I relied on the project management triangle to explain the impact that scope had on time and money for this project. But, as in almost every case, my customer wanted it all, so the project management triangle failed me. In the future, how could I help people to make wiser scope decisions?

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020