Home > Articles > Web Development > Content Management Systems

The Drupal Page

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Navigation and Menus

Your page template includes two variables containing navigation menus that you can place anywhere you like in your Web page: $primary_links and $secondary_links. These variables contain items from the two Drupal menus of the same name—primary and secondary links. Drupal menus are collections of links to both on-site and off-site URLs.

To add new items to the menus, you can use one of two methods:

  • To add a link to an existing node, navigate to the editing screen for the node and adjust its menu settings as in Figure 4.3.

    Figure 4.3

    Figure 4.3 Adding a node to a menu from the node editing screen.

  • You may also use the menu administration system to add a page to the menu as shown in Figure 4.4 by navigating to Administer, Site building, Menus, Add item. This method allows you to add links to off-site URLs.

    Figure 4.4

    Figure 4.4 Adding a path to Primary links from the menu administration area.

To add subsection menu items, you use the same technique described above, but change the “Parent item” to the menu item in which your new subsection ought to be included. For example, suppose you have a set of primary links containing “Mammal,” “Amphibian,” and “Reptile.” To place “Kitten” as a subsection of “Mammal,” you would set the “Parent item” to be “Mammal” when adding the menu information for the “Kitten” node.

Within the menu administration area, you can specify which menu is used for $primary_links and which menu is used for $secondary_links. By default, the variable $primary_links contains menu items from the menu “Primary links” and the variable $secondary_links contains items from the menu “Secondary links.” To alter the menus that are used for these two navigation variables, navigate to Administer, Site building, Menus, Settings and adjust the settings as appropriate.

The variable $secondary_links can be configured in one of two ways: Either this menu can contain a second set of sitewide links for your site with “secondary” content (for example, legal notice, contact information), or you can configure $secondary_links to contain the relevant subsection navigation for your primary links. Use the following steps to change the default behavior:

  1. Navigate to Administer, Site building, Menus.
  2. Choose the Settings tab.
  3. Change the “Source for the secondary links” so that it matches the menu that is set in the “Source for the primary links.”
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the Web page and click “Save configuration.”

The page template variable $secondary_links now contains the subsection links that have been defined for each of the items in $primary_links. Referring to the previous example, “Kitten” will now be displayed in the output of $secondary_links when you select “Mammal” from the list of menu options provided by the variable $primary_links.

Theming Menus

A menu is built from three nested parts: the menu tree, the menu items (the “leaves” on the menu tree), and the menu item links. It is possible to alter the HTML for each of these components, although in most cases customizing the CSS for the default XHTML markup will be enough to make your menus look great. In addition to their basic structure, menus contain information about the menu leaves. For example, Figure 4.5 shows the active trail of the current page, Modules, and includes a menu of items that are collapsed, and expanded.

Figure 4.5

Figure 4.5 Menus are built of a menu tree, the menu items, and menu item links.

Depending on the type of menu items you want to alter, there are two relevant strategies:

  • To alter the contents of the variables $primary_links and $secondary_links, use the page’s preprocess function.
  • To alter the markup for all menus, use theme functions.

The primary and secondary links are registered theme variables. You may alter their contents by using the page’s preprocess function. The variables themselves consist of an array of links and attributes. To make changes, you must loop through the list of links and alter each one individually. For example, if you decide to add a new class to each menu item that is related to its position in the menu, you could use the code snippet below. This technique would be useful if you wanted to add an icon to each menu item, because it relies on the exact order of the menu items. Once this order is set, you may not alter the order of the menu items without also updating the corresponding CSS styles.

function bolg_preprocess_page(&$variables) {
// Make a shortcut for the primary links variables
$primary_links = $variables['primary_links'];


// Loop through the menu, adding a new class for CSS selections
$i = 1;


foreach ($primary_links as $link => $attributes) {
  // Append the new class to existing classes for each menu item
  $class = $attributes['attributes']['class'] . " item-$i";


  // Add revised classes back to the primary links temp variable
  $primary_links[$link]['attributes']['class'] = $class;
  $i++;
}
 // End of the foreach loop


// reset the variable to contain the new markup
$variables['primary_links'] = $primary_links;


} // End of the preprocess function

Using the appropriate unique identifier for the primary links, add the new classes to your style sheet:

#primary_links .item-1 { /* styles for the first menu item */ }

This technique works well if you want to add styles based on the order of options in a menu. Menus are stored in an associative array and have a unique key assigned to each item. To create a unique menu item identifier, replace the variable $i with the variable $link in the snippet given earlier. Your menu items will now be assigned a unique identifier that does not change even when the order of the menu items is altered.

For more information about how menus are constructed and themed, read the API documentation at http://api.drupal.org/api/function/theme_links/6 and http://api.drupal.org/api/group/menu/6 (scroll to the list of theme functions).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020