Home > Articles > Data > SQL Server

  • Print
  • + Share This

Ways to Use Data

There are three general ways that enterprise data is used:

  • To process transactions.

  • To discover strategic business information.

  • To maintain history.

Much of the same enterprise data is used in all three ways. This data often needs to be moved and transformed as it is being used for different purposes.

Transaction Processing

Companies gather a great deal of data during the ongoing operation of their business. This data includes information about the following:

  • Orders

  • Purchases

  • Production

  • Sales

  • Shipping

  • Inventory

  • Employees

  • Expense and revenue

  • Customers

  • Customer contacts

The primary purpose of On Line Transaction Processing (OLTP) data is to keep track of individual transactions so that each one can be handled properly. A company needs to be able to answer these questions:

  • What did the customer order?

  • Are the ordered products available?

  • How much was the customer charged?

  • To what address was the product shipped?

  • When was the order shipped?

  • When was the payment received?

Business Analysis

Data is needed for business analysis. A company needs to know more than the individual details of its business transactions. This information has to be assembled into a meaningful format so that it can be used for business decisions.

The business analyst asks these kinds of questions:

  • Which stores had the greatest increase in sales this past month?

  • Which types of products are increasing in sales? Which are decreasing?

  • Who are our most profitable customers? The least profitable?

  • What are our most profitable products? Our least profitable?

  • Did we make a profit?

  • How can we make a greater profit in the future?

There are three broad categories of business analysis—reporting, OLAP, and data mining.


Business analysis has traditionally taken the form of reporting. A report is typically a collection of spreadsheets that provide information about a company's performance from a variety of perspectives.


In recent years, a new kind of interactive reporting tool has been developed. On Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a software tool that presents millions of different spreadsheet views to an analyst. An OLAP tool allows a user to easily move between these different spreadsheets:

  • Drilling down to a level of greater detail.

  • Drilling up to see the broader picture.

  • Looking at the data from different perspectives or dimensions.

  • Slicing (filtering) on a particular factor.

  • Combining dimensions to see how different factors interact.

Microsoft included OLAP Services with SQL Server for the first time in version 7.0. In SQL Server 2000, OLAP is part of the functionality of Analysis Services. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 show the process of drilling down to a greater level of detail using the Excel PivotTable.

Figure 3.1
OLAP data viewed in Excel 2000.

Figure 3.2
You can drill down to a greater level of detail.

Figure 3.3 shows the data from a different perspective or dimension—customer income instead of store location.

Figure 3.3
You can change perspectives (dimensions).

Figure 3.4 shows the Store Location being used to filter, or slice, the results.

Figure 3.4
You can filter (slice) the data from another perspective.

Chapter 21, "The Analysis Services Tasks," describes the use of the Analysis Services Processing task for processing cubes. Chapter 31, "Creating a Custom Task in VB," shows how to create a custom task for generating local cube files.

Data Mining

Data mining is an automated form of business intelligence. A data mining tool is programmed to analyze a set of data to find significant patterns.

Microsoft Analysis Services in SQL Server 2000 includes data mining functionality. There are two data mining algorithms included with Analysis Services:

  • Decision Trees—Discovering the most likely patterns for predicting data values.

  • Clustering—Finding the natural ways that records can be assembled into groups.

Figure 3.5 shows the Customer Pattern Discovery mining model from the Foodmart 2000 sample database.

Figure 3.5
The data mining model browser in Analysis Services.

Chapter 21 explains how to use the Analysis Services Processing task to process cubes and data mining models, and how to use the Data Mining Prediction Query task to use a mining model to predict unknown data values.

Note - I think "data mining" is a wonderfully descriptive term for the automated analysis of business data. Tons of ore have to be processed to obtain a few ounces of gold. In the same way, we have a mountain of data—much more than we could ever understand. The data as a whole is worthless, but hidden in that data are nuggets of significant business information. Our data mining tools sift through the massive quantity of data to find the facts that have significance for our business processes.

Maintaining History

The third primary need of an enterprise data structure is to maintain history. A company needs to have an accurate record of what has happened in its past—for historical business analysis and because these transactional records may be needed to resolve business disputes.

Data used for maintaining history usually does not have to be as readily available as the current transaction or business analysis data. It is often archived to a different database so that the volume of data in the current OLTP and OLAP databases can be maintained at a manageable size. Archived data is often kept online in a summarized form for business analysis.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020