Home > Articles > Process Improvement

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

3.3 The Three Source Models

To truly appreciate the significance of the CMMI accomplishments, you need to understand a bit of the history that led up to the development of the CMMI product suite. Of primary importance are the stories of the source models. Table 3-1 summarizes the three source models for CMMI.

Table 3-1. Source Models for CMMI

Model Discipline

Source Model

Software

SW-CMM, draft version 2(c)

Systems Engineering

EIA/IS 731

Integrated Product and Process Development

IPD-CMM, version 0.98

3.3.1 The CMM for Software

The character of software development sometimes seems closer to mathematics and art than it does to most other engineering disciplines. Software is inherently an intangible, intellectual development medium. No laws of physics govern its behavior; it is both marvelously and dangerously malleable. For this reason, it is critical that mature disciplines and processes be applied when working with software.

Software engineering and process management have been intimately associated since the pioneering work of Ron Radice and Richard Phillips in Watts Humphrey's group at IBM in the 1980s.5 Basing their work on the tenets of the quality movement, Radice and Phillips led the way in crafting a way to capture successful software development practices and then organize those practices so as to help struggling organizations get a handle on their processes and improve them. Given the nature of software development, it was not surprising that the large majority of the practices related to management discipline and processes.

In 1986, Watts Humphrey, the SEI, and the Mitre Corporation responded to a request by the U.S. federal government to create a way of evaluating the software capability of its contractors. The group used IBM's concepts to create a software maturity framework, a questionnaire, and two appraisal methods. Over the next few years, this work was continued and refined.

In 1991, the SEI published the CMM for Software version 1.0, a model that describes the principles and practices underlying software process maturity. The CMM is organized to help software organizations improve along an evolutionary path, growing from an ad hoc, chaotic environment into mature, disciplined software processes. The CMM was used and evaluated for two years, and then revised and released as version 1.1 in 1993.7 A similar revision was planned for 1997 as version 2.0;8 this version was developed but never released as an independent model. However, the good work did not go to waste: The proposed revision was used as the source for the CMMI integration effort. In addition, two documents regarding software appraisals were used: the CMM Appraisal Framework, version 1.0,9 and the CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI): Method Description.10

Software engineering's scope extends beyond the primary material contained in the CMM for Software to include software-related topics such as requirements elicitation, installation, operation, and maintenance. The CMMI model covers these areas in more detail through inclusion of appropriate material from the Systems Engineering Capability Model.

3.3.2 The Systems Engineering Capability Model

Systems engineering integrates all of the system-related disciplines so that systems meet business and technical needs in the most effective way, while striving to minimize local optimization and maximize return on investment. Another way of envisioning systems engineering is as the application of a set of rigorous engineering techniques to the solution of a complex technical problem.

It is difficult to fully understand the scope of systems engineering without looking at the various specialty disciplines associated with it. In Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management, Howard Eisner lists 30 key elements of systems engineering. These elements include such diverse areas as mission engineering, architectural design, life-cycle costing, alternatives analysis, technical data management, operations and maintenance, integrated logistics support, and reengineering.12

The systems engineering material in the CMMI has a complex history. In a modern-day "Tale of Two Capability Models," two organizations undertook to model systems engineering practices. In August 1995, the Enterprise Process Improvement Collaboration (EPIC—a group of industry, academic, and government organizations) released the Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SE-CMM). EPIC enlisted the SEI and architect Roger Bate to lead the development. The team pulled its systems engineering expertise primarily from aerospace and defense industry corporations and from the Software Productivity Consortium. The result was a model based on the appraisal model architecture contained in draft versions of ISO/IEC 15504 that addressed engineering, project, process, and organization practices.13

Around the same time that the SE-CMM was under development, INCOSE created a checklist for evaluating the capabilities of systems engineering organizations based on various engineering standards. Over time, this checklist evolved into a full-blown capability model known as the Systems Engineering Capability Assessment Model (SECAM). SECAM extended the SPICE concepts of a continuous model but focused more specifically on systems engineering practices than the SE-CMM, using EIA 632, "Processes for Engineering a Model," as the fundamental reference.

Needless to say, an environment with two models developed by two reputable organizations that purported to address the same issues was ripe for a model war. Which model would emerge as the "standard" by which organizations could be evaluated? After a year of heated discussions, in 1996 EPIC and INCOSE agreed to work together under the auspices of the Government Electronic and Information Technology Association (GEIA) of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), with the goal of merging the two models into a single EIA standard. The result was an interim standard EIA/IS 731, "Systems Engineering Capability Model" (SECM).14 By issuing the interim standard, the systems engineering community could apply a single, common description of systems engineering processes to the CMMI project.

Systems engineering in CMMI remains heavily influenced by EIA 731. While echoes of the controversy between SECM and SE-CMM found voice in CMMI discussions, the resulting systems engineering content reflects an even stronger evolution of the original concepts. It preserves some of the innovations of EIA 731 while providing a more consistent underlying architecture compatible with the emerging international standards.15 The standard includes both the SECM model (Part 1) and an appraisal method (Part 2).

3.3.3 The Integrated Product Development CMM

The source model for integrated product and process development was a draft of the Integrated Product Development CMM, known as IPD CMM version 0.98. This model had been developed almost to the point of its initial formal release when the CMMI project began in 1998.

From the outset, the CMMI Team wanted to include the concept of integrated product and process development (IPPD) in the CMMI product suite. This concept was fundamental to many of the large member corporations of NDIA, and it was strongly supported by the Department of Defense (DoD).16 Unfortunately, the definition of IPPD used in the CMMI requirements document was derived from the DoD's experience with integrated operation of government system acquisition programs—and acquisition was not an initial discipline for CMMI. This discrepancy led to some difficulty in addressing the IPPD tenets within the CMMI scope. Adding to the confusion was a lack of consensus in the industry (and among members of the CMMI Team) regarding the fundamental concepts and best practices of integrated product development. Because it represented a relatively new means of organizing and accomplishing engineering work, there were nearly as many definitions as there were organizations.

This problem was not unique to CMMI. Indeed, the team established by EPIC to develop the IPD CMM, which was supported by many of the same members of the SE-CMM team, struggled with IPPD concepts for more than two years before being subsumed into the CMMI effort. The final draft IPD-CMM was established as a source document for CMMI, but the draft never achieved the status of a finished product.

IPPD emphasizes the involvement of stakeholders from all technical and business functions throughout the product development life cycle—customers, suppliers, and developers of both the product and product-related processes, such as testing and evaluation, manufacturing, support, training, marketing, purchasing, financial, contracting, and disposal processes. Clearly, implementing IPPD affects more than an organization's engineering processes and practices. Because it is essentially a way of doing business, it may radically change organizational structure and modify leadership behavior.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020