Home > Articles > Engineering > Communications Engineering

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

1.6 Overview of This Book

This book systematically presents the latest developments and advancements in jitter, noise, and BER (JNB) and SI. It guides you from the basic math, statistics, circuit, and system models to the final practical applications. It covers fundamental theory, to JNB and SI simulation/modeling, to JNB and SI diagnostics/debug and compliance testing, with an emphasis on two major applications: clock and serial data communications. It tries to keep a good balance and coupling between theory and practical applications.

As you have seen, this chapter is a high-level overview of JNB and SI basics. This chapter introduced the JNB component classification scheme, JNB interrelationship, root-cause mechanisms, JNB measurement references, clock recovery, and associated JNB transfer functions.

Chapter 2 reviews and introduces the basic theories on statistics, linear time-invariant (LTI) systems, and digital signal processing that you need to quantitatively understand and model JNB and its related components. Also introduced in this chapter is the statistical signal process theory that is used to quantify the JNB spectrum and power spectrum density (PSD).

Chapter 3 describes the jitter component in a quantitative manner. Detailed root causes and mathematical models and treatments for each jitter component are given. This chapter lays the necessary physical and mathematical foundation for jitter and noise to warrant the precision of the estimations. Jitter component math models can be applied to noise components similarly.

Chapter 4 discusses jitter, noise, and BER correlatively from the view of statistical signal processing. It first discusses the jitter total PDF and its relationship with the PDFs of its component. It then discusses the noise total PDF and its relationship with the PDFs of its component. It also discusses the joint PDFs, with both jitter and noise being considered. Finally, it discusses the BER cumulative distribution function (CDF) and its relationship to both corresponding jitter and noise PDFs. Applications of two-dimensional eye diagram and BER contour are introduced.

Chapter 5 focuses on jitter separation methods in the statistical distribution domain. Equipped with basic math knowledge, as well as the mechanism and physical nature of each jitter component, you will read about jitter separation. Jitter separation is an important step toward understanding and quantifying jitter components, because in reality the jitter that we observe or measure is a "compound" jitter with many components. Jitter separation methods based on jitter PDF and BER CDF are introduced. The "Tailfit" method in which random jitter PDF is quantified by a Gaussian distribution is first introduced for PDF-based jitter separation. Then the same method is applied to BER CDF-based distribution, in which the random jitter CDF is quantified by the integration of a Gaussian—namely, an error function.

Chapter 6 discusses jitter separation methods in the time and frequency domain. Both spectrum (first moment) and PSD (second moment)-based jitter separation methods are introduced, and associated advantages and disadvantages of each method are given. This chapter also compares statistical PDF/CDF-based methods with spectrum and PSD-based jitter separation methods.

Chapter 7 focuses on clock jitter because it is an important topic for all digital systems, so it deserves a dedicated treatment. New concepts of phase jitter, period jitter, cycle-to-cycle jitter, and their corresponding relationships are discussed. The mathematical relationship between phase jitter, period jitter, and cycle-to-cycle jitter is given in both time and frequency domain. Furthermore, phase jitter and its relationship to the conventional phase noise for quantifying the performance of clock or crystal oscillator in the frequency spectrum domain are also discussed.

Chapter 8 focuses on PLL jitter because it is widely used in clock generation and clock recovery and is an important metric for any high-speed PLL. Jitter at the PLL output and its relationship with PLL building elements such as phase detector (PD), low-pass filter (LPF), voltage control oscillator (VCO), and dividing/multiplying are discussed. Jitter as a function of PLL reference and internal noise sources and transfer functions is derived and applied to PLL and its jitter analysis for second-order, third-order, and general nth-order PLL implementations.

Chapter 9 is dedicated to jitter, noise, and SI mechanisms and root-cause sources or mechanisms for a high-speed link system. Those mechanisms are discussed within the context of link architecture, including its subsystems of transmitter, receiver, channel, and reference clock. For the transmitter, reference clock jitter and voltage driver noise are discussed. For the receiver, jitter from clock recovery circuits and data sampler are the focus. For the channel, various losses in both copper- and optical-based channels are covered. For the reference clock, jitter due to PLL or crystal oscillator, as well as spread-spectrum clocking (SSC), are presented. This chapter also discusses the link jitter budget method using the RJ root-sum-square (RSS) method to ensure the link's interoperability and overall BER performance.

Chapter 10 focuses on quantitative modeling and analysis for jitter, noise, and SI. Modeling and analysis methods are presented for link subsystems of transmitter, receiver, and channel within the framework of the LTI system theory. By using the cascading property of the LTI theorem, signal, jitter, and noise at the channel and receiver outputs are readily obtainable. Important subsystems of equalization and clock recovery are included in the modeling and analysis. For the equalization, both transmitter and receiver equalizations are considered. The modeling and analysis methods introduced in this chapter can give estimations for most advanced serial links today and are scalable to future link advancement given that they are LTI-based.

Chapter 11 is dedicated to the various testing aspects of jitter, noise, and SI. It describes test implications and requirements for the link architectures/topologies operating mechanisms, with a focus on clock recovery and equalization. Testing requirements and methods for links with clock recovery and equalization are presented, covering transmitter, channel or medium, reference clock, and PLL. System test methods such as loopback test also are discussed.

Chapter 12 is an executive summary and overview of the entire book. Future works and trends for JNB and SI at high speed as data rates keep increasing also are discussed.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020