Home > Articles

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Java Skills

Java skills are, of course, the essence of WLS 8.1 development. Java skills are vastly different depending on what you're doing. A programmer used to doing small command-line programs in Java won't necessarily even know where to start developing an online application using WLS, or even a Swing GUI app connecting through JDBC to a database.

Because of this, assembling a team to build applications becomes more difficult. A manager cannot simply hire a Java programmer; she must know what underlying technologies the application will be using. This doesn't mean the employee can't learn the new technology, but a learning curve will be associated with doing so.

The norm in software development is to have one person wear many hats and do multiple things. This not only enables the developer to grow in his craft, but also saves on the overhead of hiring another person. A word of caution: A developer doing too many things at one time can directly relate to nothing getting done on time. A division of labor and a hierarchy of Java skills are what it takes to develop mission-critical software quickly, efficiently, and correctly.

A Java Architect

Software solutions are only as good or as bad as their design. Hence the importance of a good Java architect. A Java architect developing for WLS 8.1 must understand all the technologies available and choose the best ones for the solution. Most architects will use a design product to lay out the project—first at a high level, and then at a more detailed level, showing what technologies and classes are being used, extended, and created.

As the software cycle progresses, changes will ultimately come into play as new requirements and technical limitations are uncovered. A good Java architect will have years of experience in software design and an excellent understanding of not only OOP, but the J2EE architecture as well. The architect should also be aware of the features of WLS 8.1, which will enable him to take full advantage of its benefits. This experience, coupled with knowledge, enables managers and architects to work together to provide the leadership and direction for the software project.

JSPs and Servlets

Almost all applications running on WLS 8.1 will use either JavaServer Pages (JSP) or servlets. A servlet or JSP page must be run in a J2EE-compliant server, whereas other Java programs are standalone. JSPs include HTML with tags that denote Java coding, whereas servlets are a bit more involved because they're coded completely in Java.

JSPs are the easiest J2EE programs to write. A basic understanding of the Java programming language and certain J2EE-specific Web classes are all that's needed.

Another important part of writing JSPs is writing custom tag libraries to go along with them. Tag libraries enhance the ability of the JSP creator to create complex pages without writing any Java within the JSP file. Tag libraries are written completely in Java and have basic rules associated with them. Java developers should understand how tag libraries work and how to write them.

Servlets are slightly more difficult, but not much. Different levels of Java developers should exist here, with the more advanced programmers leading the entry level programmers.

JDBC and SQL

A J2EE application will usually connect to a database of some kind. This requires the use and set up of Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). JDBC enables Java programmers to connect, create, update, and retrieve information from databases that have JDBC drivers. Structured Query Language (SQL) statements are formed, and data is returned.

JDBC calls are an integral part of the J2EE framework. A developer who works with JDBC must understand SQL and how it operates because improperly designed SQL statements can have a huge affect on the runtime of an application—especially when the application is under heavy load. A developer experienced with connecting with databases is desired here, or a person who understands SQL is needed to properly formulate the SQL statements for the Java programmer.

NOTE

Developers can always get help with database administrators or designers when constructing SQL statements for a program. However, understanding SQL at a high level is always beneficial.

Beyond the Basics

The scalability of the J2EE architecture is a paramount reason why J2EE is the platform of choice to develop on. Certain technologies work together to give the application seamless integration, even though it might be across different networks on multitudes of separate platforms. The skill set needed for this type of application requires the knowledge of some of, if not all, the following technologies:

  • EJB—Enterprise Java Beans, although not difficult to create or deploy, must be properly designed to fit into a framework.

  • CMP—Container-managed persistence, which is extended with the EJB 2.0 specification, allows entity beans to have container-managed relationships. That means multiple beans can interact with each other based on the containers they're in. The container can then perform actions, such as interact with databases, independent from the entity beans contained within.

  • BMP—Bean-managed persistence defines the persistence relationship at the bean level.

  • JMS—Java Message Service allows asynchronous messages and events to be sent and received through out an environment.

  • JTA and JTS—Java Transaction API and Java Transaction Service are related technologies that allow transactions to be managed by a transaction server instead of individual components.

  • RMI—Remote Method Invocation is a powerful feature of Java that allows different virtual machines to invoke methods on each other.

  • JNDI—Java Naming and Directory Interface enables programmers to access different directory interfaces, such as LDAP and DNS, seamlessly within Java.

  • JMX—Java Management Extensions is an API that can be used by component developers to create management interfaces and tools.

  • XML—Document Object Model (DOM) and Simple API for XML (SAX) parsers are two of the standard APIs used to create and parse XML documents in Java.

  • XML Web Services—Program to program Web interfaces using standardized XML protocols to communicate and run different programs or services.

  • JCOM—This is a Java connector for connecting to Microsoft COM components used in an environment in which both technologies are present.

These core technologies are advanced and are usually performed or directed by a senior Java developer. One person is usually not proficient in all the skills needed, but two or three developers with overlapping skills can work together to create and deploy these services.

Applets

Java applets are used to fill in the gaps between what HTML can do and what regular applications can do. Applets are graphical in nature, so they comprise a different skill set from J2EE. A J2EE programmer won't necessarily know even where to start when building an applet. Applets aren't used in all J2EE applications, but if dynamically displayed information is needed without requesting it from the server, this is a helpful skill.

Swing Components

Swing components are not usually thought of as being used in J2EE applications with WLS. Java Swing components are used to build fat graphical user interfaces in a standard environment such as Mac OS, KDE, or Windows 2000. Swing components can be used to design applets, but the primary focus is on developing utilities for managing Web applications.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020