Home > Articles

Queries Introduced

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Working with Simple Criteria

You can limit the records that you see in the result of a query by adding criteria to the query. For example, you might want to see just the customers in California, or you might want to view just the orders with sales over $500. You could also view sales that occurred within a specific date range. By using criteria, you can easily accomplish any of these tasks, and many, many more.

Using an Exact Match Query

An exact match query locates data only when there is an exact match with the criteria that you enter. Here's how you run an exact match query:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field for which you want to add the condition.

  3. Type the criteria you want to apply for that field. For example, type Sales Representative in the Title field (see Figure 3.11).

  4. Figure 3.11Figure 3.11 Entering simple criteria.

  5. Click the Run button. The results of this query are shown in Figure 3.12.

Although Access is not case-sensitive, and you can therefore enter criteria in either upper- or lowercase, the criteria you enter must follow specific rules. These rules vary depending on the type of field the criteria apply to (see Table 3.1).

Figure 3.12Figure 3.12 Records with Sales Representative in the Title field.

Table 3.1 Rules for Criteria, Based on Type of Field

Type of Field

Description

Text

After you type the text, Access puts quotes around the text entered.

Number/Currency

-You type the digits, without commas or dollar signs but with decimals, if applicable.

Date/Time

You enter any date or time format.

Counter

You type the digits.

Yes/No

For a yes, you type yes or true. For no, you type no or false.


Creating Criteria Based on Multiple Conditions

There may be times when you want to create a query that contains two or more conditions. You would do this, for example, if you only wanted records in the state of California that had sales within a certain date range to appear in the output. The And condition is used to indicate that both of two conditions must be met in order for the row to be included in the resulting recordset. You can use the And condition in the same field or on multiple fields.

Using the And Condition on Multiple Fields

By placing criteria for multiple fields on the same line of the query grid, you create an And condition. This means that both conditions must be true in order for the records to appear in the result. An example of an And condition on two fields would be State Field = 'TX' And Credit limit >=5000. Here's how you create an And condition:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field that contains the first condition you want to enter.

  3. Type the first criterion you want to enter. For example, you can type Sales Manager as the criterion for Contact Title.

  4. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field that contains the second condition you want to apply.

  5. Type the second criterion you want to apply. Figure 3.13 shows USA as the criterion for Country.

  6. Figure 3.13Figure 3.13 The design of a query with criteria for Contact Title and State.

  7. Click the Run button to run the query. Only rows that meet both conditions appear in the query result (see Figure 3.14).

Figure 3.14Figure 3.14 A result that includes all sales managers in the United States.

Using the And Condition in a Single Field

There are only a few situations in which you would use an And condition in a single field. This is because in most situations, using the And condition in a single field would yield a recordset with no results. For example, the criteria State = TX And State = CA would yield no results because the state cannot be equal to both values at the same time. On the other hand, HireDate > 7/1/2001 And HireDate < 6/30/2002 would return all employees hired in that date range. Here's how you would enter this sort of criteria:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field that contains the condition you want to add.

  3. Type the first criterion you want to add (for example, HireDate > 7/1/2001).

  4. Type the keyword And.

  5. Type the second criterion (for example, HireDate < 6/30/2002).

  6. Click the Run button. Access runs the query.

CAUTION

You need to make sure when you are adding the criteria to each field that you remain on the same row of the query grid.

Using Wildcards in a Query

You can use wildcards to select records that follow a pattern. However, you can use the wildcard characters only in Text or Date/Time fields. You use the * to substitute for multiple characters and the ? to substitute for single characters. To practice using wildcards in a query, follow these steps:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field that contains the condition.

  3. Type the criteria, using a wildcard in the desired expression. In Figure 3.15 the expression Like Sales* is entered for the Contact Title field. This expression returns all rows where the Contact Title begins with Sales.

  4. Figure 3.15Figure 3.15 An example that contains Sales* as the criterion for Contact Title.

  5. Click the Run button. The result of the query, shown in Figure 3.16, indicates all the records where Contact Title begins with Sales.

Table 3.2 provides examples of how to use wildcards.

Figure 3.16Figure 3.16 The result of running a query with criterion that contains the wildcard *.

Table 3.2 Examples of Using Wildcards

Expression

Results

Sm?th

Finds Smith or Smyth.

L*ng

Finds any record that starts with L and ends in ng.

*th

Finds any record that ends in th (for example, 158th or Garth).

*on*

Finds any record that has on anywhere in the field.

*/2000

Finds all dates in 2000.

6/*/2000

Finds all dates in June 2000.


NOTE

Access displays the word Like in the criteria cell before a wildcard criterion. It is not necessary to type the word Like in the criterion cell before the criterion.

Using Comparison Operators in a Query

Sometimes you want to select records in a table that fall within a range of values. You can use comparison operators (=, <, >, <=, and >=) to create criteria based on the comparison of the value contained in a field to a value that you specify in your criteria. Each record is evaluated, and only records that meet the condition are included in the recordset. To practice using comparison operators in queries, follow these steps:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field for which you want to apply the condition.

  3. Type a comparison operator and the criterion you want the query to apply (for example, >100).

  4. Click the Run button. The result of the query appears, in Datasheet view.

Table 3.3 gives an example of comparison operators used for a field called Sales. It shows the operators, provides an example of each, and discusses the records that Access would include in the output.

Table 3.3 Comparison Operators Used to Compare Against a Field Called Sales

Operator

Indicates

Example

Includes Records Where

>

Greater than

>7500

sales are over 7500

>=

Greater than or equal to

>=7500

sales are 7500 or more

<

Less than

<7500

sales are under 7500

<=

Less than or equal to

<=7500

sales are 7500 or less

<>

Does not equal

<>7500

sales are not 7500

Between

Range of values

Between 5000 And 7500

sales are between 5000 and 7500


NOTE

You can use the word Not in place of the <> symbols.

Using the Or Condition on a Single Field

The Or condition states that either condition of two conditions should be met in order for the record to appear in the result set. You can use the Or condition on a single field or on more than one field. To practice using an Or condition on a single field, follow these steps:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field that contains the condition.

  3. Type the first criterion you want the query to apply. For example, you could type Sales Manager as a criterion for the Contact Title field.

  4. Select the cell below the current cell (this is the Or row).

  5. Type the second criterion you want the query to apply. For example, you could type Sales Agent as the criterion for the Contact Title field (see Figure 3.17).

  6. Click the Run button. The result of this query is shown in Figure 3.18. Notice that the result contains all the sales managers, sales agents, sales representatives, and owners.

Figure 3.17Figure 3.17 Using an Or condition on the Contact Title field.

Figure 3.18Figure 3.18 The result of a query that contains all the records that contain Sales Manager, Sales Agent, Sales Representative, or Owner in the Contact Title field.

Using the Or Condition on Multiple Fields

An alternative to using the Or condition on a single field is to use the Or condition to create criteria on multiple fields. An example would be City equals London or Contact Title equals Sales Agent. These criteria would return all companies in London, regardless of the contact title, and all sales agents, regardless of the city. Here's how you use the Or condition on multiple fields:

  1. Open the desired query in Design view.

  2. Select the cell on the Criteria row below the field for which you want to apply the first condition.

  3. Type the first criterion you want the query to apply (from the criterion mentioned in the introduction to these steps).

  4. Select the cell in the Or row below the second field for which you want to apply the criterion.

  5. Type the second criterion you want the query to apply (see Figure 3.19).

  6. Figure 3.19Figure 3.19 Using the Or condition on multiple fields.

  7. Click the Run button. The result of this query is shown in Figure 3.20. Notice that the output contains all rows where City is London or Contact Title is Sales Agent.

Figure 3.20Figure 3.20 The result of a query that contains the rows where City is London or Contact Title is Sales Agent.

NOTE

When you use two fields in an Or condition, you need to make sure the criteria are listed on two separate lines. If you don't, they will combine as an And condition.

You need to use the Or condition to find dates or numbers that fall outside a range (for example, before 6/1/96 or after 1/1/97).

You can use the word In and list the multiple criteria, separated by commas, in parentheses (for example, In ('USA', 'France', 'Canada')).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020