Home > Articles > Data

Binding Data in BIRT

This chapter explains column bindings in BIRT (Business Intelligence and Reporting Technology), including what they are and how to create, edit and delete them.
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

The data set or data sets you create return the data you want to use in a report. Before you can use or display data set data in a report, you must first create the necessary data bindings. As the first tutorial demonstrated, to display the data in a report, you simply drag data set fields from Data Explorer to a table in the layout editor.

You might also remember in that same tutorial that when you dragged a data set field to the layout editor, BIRT Report Designer first displayed a dialog called Select Data Binding. This dialog, shown in Figure 8-1, shows the data binding that BIRT Report Designer creates each time you insert a data set field. This data binding, called a column binding, defines an expression that specifies what data to display. The column binding also defines a name that report elements use to access data.

Figure 8-1

Figure 8-1 Select Data Binding showing a column binding

Understanding column bindings

For each piece of data to display in a report, there must be a column binding. For this discussion, note that data refers to dynamic data, and not static text that you type for a label. Dynamic data is data from a data set, or data that is calculated from a function or a formula. The data is dynamic, because the values are not fixed at design time.

The default column binding, which BIRT Report Designer creates for a data set field, uses the data set field name as the name of the column binding. You can change the name of the column binding, and you might want to do so if the data set field name is not descriptive. In Figure 8-1, the expression defined for the column binding is dataSetRow["CUSTOMERNAME"]. This expression indicates that the column binding accesses data from the data set field, CUSTOMERNAME. In the layout editor, the column-binding name appears within square brackets ([ ]) in the report, as shown in Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2

Figure 8-2 Data element displaying the column-binding name

Column bindings form an intermediate layer between data set data and report elements—such as chart, data, dynamic text, and image elements—that display data. Figure 8-3 illustrates this concept. Report elements can access data only through column bindings.

Figure 8-3

Figure 8-3 Report elements access data set data through column bindings

The preceding examples show column bindings that access data set data. Column bindings can also access data derived from functions or user-defined formulas. For example, you can use a data element to display the current date derived from the JavaScript Date object. You would create a column binding that used the following expression:

   new Date()

Figure 8-4 shows this column binding defined in Select Data Binding.

Figure 8-4

Figure 8-4 User-defined column binding

Descriptive names

One of the benefits of using column bindings is that you control the names used in the report. Instead of displaying data set field names, which are often not descriptive enough, or formulas, which can be long, you can specify short and descriptive names. If you share report designs with other report developers, descriptive names make that design much easier to understand. Modifying and maintaining a report design that has user-friendly names is easier. When deciding what names to use, consider that, in the layout editor, elements display up to 20 characters.

Dynamic updates of calculated data

Another advantage of column bindings becomes apparent when you work with calculated data. When a report needs to display a series of related calculated data, column bindings enable you to create and update calculations easily. For example, assume a report contains the following four data elements:

  • The first data element uses column binding, Total_National_Sales, which defines the following expression to calculate the sum of all order amounts:
  • The second data element uses column binding, Total_State_Sales, which defines the following expression to calculate the sum of order amounts in each state:


    This expression is the same as the previous expression, but both return different results, because they perform the aggregate calculation over different sets of rows.

  • The third data element uses column binding, Percent_State_Sales, which uses the previous column bindings to calculate a state's total sales as a percentage of the overall sales. The expression is:

       row["Total_State_Sales"]/row["Total_National_Sales"] * 100

    Without column bindings, the calculation would have to be more complicated:

       Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"], null, "state")/
         Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"], null, "overall") * 100
  • The fourth data element uses column binding, National_Profit, which contains this expression:

       row["Total_National_Sales"] - row["Total_Costs"]

    Without column bindings, this calculation would also be more complicated:

       Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"], null, "overall") -

You have already seen how column bindings make expressions shorter and more readable. Now, consider the case where you need to update one calculation that is used by other calculations. Suppose you need to change how the total national sales is calculated, from



     Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"]) -
        Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"]) * 0.08

Because the third and fourth data elements use the total national sales calculation in their calculations, without column bindings, you would have to manually edit those calculations as well. Without column bindings, you would have to revise the expression for the fourth element as follows:

      Total.sum(row["Order_Amount"]) * 0.08)-

By using column bindings, any change to the first calculation automatically applies to the third and fourth calculations. Instead of modifying three expressions, you modify only one. Your work is faster and less error-prone.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020