# Working with Strings

This chapter is from the book

## 2.24 Converting Strings to Numbers (Decimal and Otherwise)

Basically there are two ways to convert strings to numbers: the Kernel method Integer and Float and the to_i and to_f methods of String. (Capitalized method names such as Integer are usually reserved for special data conversion functions like this.)

The simple case is trivial, and these are equivalent:

```x = "123".to_i          # 123
y = Integer("123")      # 123```

When a string is not a valid number, however, their behaviors differ:

```x = "junk".to_i         # silently returns 0
y = Integer("junk")     # error```

to_i stops converting when it reaches a non-numeric character, but Integer raises an error:

```x = "123junk".to_i      # 123
y = Integer("123junk")  # error```

Both allow leading and trailing whitespace:

```x = " 123 ".to_i        # 123
y = Integer(" 123 ")    # 123```

Floating point conversion works much the same way:

```x = "3.1416".to_f      # 3.1416
y = Float("2.718")     # 2.718```

Both conversion methods honor scientific notation:

```x = Float("6.02e23")   # 6.02e23
y = "2.9979246e5".to_f # 299792.46```

to_i and Integer also differ in how they handle different bases. The default, of course, is decimal or base ten; but we can work in other bases also. (The same is not true for floating point.)

When talking about converting between numeric bases, strings always are involved. After all, an integer is an integer, and they are all stored in binary.

Base conversion, therefore, always means converting to or from some kind of string. Here we're looking at converting from a string. (For the reverse, see section 5.18 "Performing Base Conversions" and section 5.5 "Formatting Numbers for Output.")

When a number appears in program text as a literal numeric constant, it may have a "tag" in front of it to indicate base. These tags are 0b for binary, a simple 0 for octal, and 0x for hexadecimal.

These tags are honored by the Integer method but not by the to_i method:

```x = Integer("0b111")     # binary      - returns 7
y = Integer("0111")      # octal       - returns 73
z = Integer("0x111")     # hexadecimal - returns 291

x = "0b111".to_i         # 0
y = "0111".to_i          # 0
z = "0x111".to_i          # 0```

to_i, however, allows an optional second parameter to indicate base. Typically, the only meaningful values are 2, 8, 10 (the default), and 16. However, tags are not recognized even with the base parameter.

```x = "111".to_i(2)        # 7
y = "111".to_i(8)        # octal       - returns 73
z = "111".to_i(16)       # hexadecimal - returns 291

x = "0b111".to_i         # 0
y = "0111".to_i          # 0
z = "0x111".to_i         # 0```

Because of the "standard" behavior of these methods, a digit that is inappropriate for the given base will be treated differently:

```x = "12389".to_i(8)      # 123    (8 is ignored)
y = Integer("012389")    # error  (8 is illegal)```

Although it might be of limited usefulness, to_i handles bases up to 36, using all letters of the alphabet. (This may remind you of the base64 encoding; for information on that, see section 2.37, "Encoding and Decoding base64 Strings.")

```x = "123".to_i(5)        # 66
y = "ruby".to_i(36)      # 1299022```

It's also possible to use the scanf standard library to convert character strings to numbers. This library adds a scanf method to Kernel, to IO, and to String:

```str = "234 234 234"
x, y, z = str.scanf("%d %o %x")    # 234, 156, 564```

The scanf methods implement all the meaningful functionality of their C counterparts scanf, sscanf, and fscanf. It does not handle binary.

### InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

## Overview

Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

## Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

### Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

### Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

### Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

### Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

### Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

### Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

## Other Collection and Use of Information

### Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

### Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

### Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

## Security

Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

## Children

This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

## Marketing

Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

• Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
• Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
• Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
• Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

## Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

## Choice/Opt-out

Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

## Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

## Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

## Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

• As required by law.
• With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
• In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
• To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
• In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
• To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
• To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
• To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
• To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.