Home > Articles > Programming > C/C++

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Key Development Principles

Six fundamental principles characterize the most successful projects in the software industry.

The practices in this book are organized according to six fundamental principles observed by IBM to characterize the most successful projects in the software development industry.17 Many of the following principles (see Figure 1.2) are found to some degree in most iterative and agile processes:

  1. Adapt the process.
  2. Balance stakeholder priorities.
  3. Collaborate across teams.
  4. Demonstrate value iteratively.
  5. Elevate the level of abstraction.
  6. Focus continuously on quality.
Figure 1.2

Figure 1.2 Principles for Business-Driven Development.

These six principles characterize the software development industry’s best practices in the creation, deployment, and evolution of software-intensive systems. They have been derived by IBM through workshops with thousands of development managers and executives and by synthesizing input from a large number of technical leaders within IBM who are working with software development organizations across all industries.

Each principle and supporting practices is described in a separate chapter.

Each of these principles is described in a separate chapter giving an overview of the principle, outlining the patterns of behavior that best embody each principle, and listing the most recognizable anti-patterns that can harm software development projects. The primary focus of each chapter is a set of supporting practices that will help your team to adhere to the principle. To provide a more logical sequence for the book, we have chosen to present the chapters in a different order from the alphabetical order in which the principles are listed above. There is no particular significance to the ordering of practices within a chapter. The principles and their supporting best practices are listed below in the order in which they appear in the book.

  • Demonstrate value iteratively. Each iteration should deliver incremental capabilities that are assessed by stakeholders. This enables you to get feedback from stakeholders as well as on progress made so that you can adapt your plans as required. Iterative development also allows you to focus each iteration on addressing the key risks that the project is currently facing, allowing you to increase predictability.

    Practice 1 Manage risk.

    Practice 2 Execute your project in iterations.

    Practice 3 Embrace and manage change.

    Practice 4 Measure progress objectively.

  • Focus continuously on quality. Continuously improving quality requires more than just testing to validate fitness for use. Rather, it involves all team members throughout the lifecyclehaving them build quality into the process and the product. An iterative approach focuses on early testing and test-and-build automation throughout the lifecycle as a means to reduce the number of defects, provide fact-based quality metrics early on, and allow you to plan and adapt your product more effectively based on reality.

    Practice 5 Test your own code.

    Practice 6 Leverage test automation appropriately.

    Practice 7 Everyone owns the product.

  • Balance stakeholder priorities. There will always be many competing stakeholder priorities, such as producing a solution rapidly and inexpensively versus addressing all the business requirements. We need to work closely with the stakeholders to make sure that we understand their priorities and to prioritize the right projects and the project requirements. We also need to strike the right balance between leveraging existing assets and building custom software, acknowledging that in some cases the former may require compromising on what requirements to address.

    Practice 8 Understand the domain.

    Practice 9 Describe requirements from the user perspective.

    Practice 10 Prioritize requirements for implementation.

    Practice 11 Leverage legacy systems.

  • Collaborate across teams. We need to enable people to work at their best. This means that we need to equip talented people with the right skills, break down walls that prevent a project team from collaborating effectively, and put in place the right environments to facilitate meaningful collaboration. As software becomes increasingly critical to how we run our business, we also need to make sure that we work well together across business, software, and operational teams.

    Practice 12 Build high-performance teams.

    Practice 13 Organize around the architecture.

    Practice 14 Manage versions.

  • Elevate the level of abstraction. Complexity is a major enemy to project success, and minimizing the amount of code, data structures, components, model elements, or other constructs humans produce during a project is crucial to reducing complexity. You can achieve this goal by reusing existing assets—such as business models, components, patterns, and services—instead of custom-building new ones. You can also leverage higher-level languages, frameworks, and tools that can generate code from higher-level models; automate unit testing; and manage the complexity of configuration management. Another approach to reducing complexity is to promote implicity. You can do this by refactoring, keeping code and models clean, and implementing key aspects of the architecture first in what we call architecture-driven development.

    Practice 15 Leverage patterns.

    Practice 16 Architect with components and services.

    Practice 17 Actively promote reuse.

    Practice 18 Model key perspectives.

  • Adapt the process. More process is not necessarily better. Rather, you need to adapt the process to the specific needs of your project, based on size, complexity, needs for compliance, and so on. In addition, you need to adapt the process to different lifecycle phases, so you may, for example, use less ceremony at the start of a project and more ceremony toward the end. You must also continuously improve the process, for example by assessing how well it works at the end of each iteration.

    Practice 19 Rightsize your process.

    Practice 20 Continuously reevaluate what you do.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020