Home > Articles > Security > Network Security

Windows Live Response for Collecting and Analyzing Forensically Sound Evidence

Sometimes your victim cannot afford to remove the system or the only evidence of the incident may currently be in memory. Either way, a standard forensic duplication is impossible. This chapter will address a technique for collecting and analyzing forensically sound evidence from what is known as the Live Incident Response Process.
This chapter is from the book

For more information on Security, visit our Security Reference Guide or sign up for our Security Newsletter

When a Microsoft Windows machine is involved in an incident, we have several choices of how to proceed in our investigation. The overall scenario usually dictates the next steps an investigator takes. Sometimes your victim cannot afford to remove the system from the network because a proper backup server cannot be swapped in its place. Therefore, a traditional forensic duplication cannot be acquired. Other times, the data currently in memory may be the only evidence of the incident. This chapter will address a technique for collecting and analyzing forensically sound evidence from what is known as the Live Incident Response Process.

In short, a live response collects all of the relevant data from the system that will be used to confirm whether an incident occurred. The data collected during a live response consists of two main subsets: volatile and nonvolatile data. The volatile data is information we would lose if we walked up to a machine and yanked out the power cord. This data would not be present if we were to rely on the traditional analysis methods of forensic duplications. A live response process contains information such as the current network connections, running processes, and open files. On the other hand, the nonvolatile data we collect during the live response is information that would be "nice to have." We would collect non-volatile data such as the system event logs in an easily readable format, for instance, instead of the raw binary files in which Microsoft Windows saves them. Of course, this data would exist in a forensic duplication, but it would be more difficult to output it in a nice format after the machine has been powered off.

The live response data is collected by running a series of commands. Each command produces data that under normal circumstances would be sent to the console. Because we must save the data for further analysis, we want to transmit the data to our forensic workstation (a machine that the forensic investigator considers trusted) instead of the local victim's hard drive. If we were to save the data locally to the victim's hard drive, there would be a significant chance that we would be overwriting evidence if we chose to acquire a forensic duplication at a later date. Therefore, that effect is undesirable.

There are two main ways that we can transmit the data to the forensic workstation. The first way is to use the "swiss army knife" of network administrators called netcat. netcat simply creates TCP channels. netcat can be executed in a listening mode, like a telnet server; or in a connection mode, like the telnet client. We can start a netcat server on our forensic workstation with the following command:

nc –v –l –p 2222 > command.txt

The -v switch places netcat in verbose mode. The -l switch places netcat in listening mode (like a telnet server). The -p switch tells netcat on which TCP port to listen for data. By using this command, any data sent to TCP port 2,222 on our forensic workstation will be saved to command.txt. On the victim computer, you will want to run a command to collect live response data. The output of the command is sent over our TCP channel on port 2,222 and saved on the forensic workstation instead of the victim's hard drive.

The data can be sent from the victim computer with the following command:

command | nc forensic_workstation_ip_address 2222

Of course, you will want to rename the italicized keywords such as command with the command you run to collect the live response data. More relevant commands that make up our Live Incident Response Process will be discussed shortly. Moreover, you will want to substitute the IP address of your forensic workstation where it says forensic_workstation_ip_address. After these commands have completed, you will press CTRL-C (^C) to break the netcat session, and the resulting file command.txt will contain all of the data from the command we executed. A simple MD5 checksum of command.txt can be calculated so that you may prove its authenticity at a later date with the following command:

md5sum –b command.txt > command.md5

The -b option tells md5sum to calculate the MD5 hash of the contents of the command.txt file in binary mode. You will always want to use the -b command-line switch. md5sum is available in the Cygwin utilities from http://www.cygwin.com. You may also use the md5sum from UnxUtils located at unxutils.sourceforge.net. UnxUtils are native Windows binaries, so you will not need additional dynamically linked libraries (DLL) installed on your system like Cygwin requires. This will become important when we create a response toolkit. We will discuss the methods of creating a response toolkit in Chapter 16, "Building the Ultimate Response CD."

In most circumstances, you will want to use a variant of netcat, named cryptcat (http://sourceforge.net/projects/cryptcat), because it encrypts all of the data across the TCP channel. cryptcat uses all of the same command-line switches as netcat. cryptcat offers two advantages: secrecy and authentication. Because the data is encrypted, intruders will not be able to see what you are collecting. Due to the encryption, any bit manipulation by an intruder will be detectable because it will be unencrypted on the forensic workstation. If the bits are altered when traversing the network, your output will be garbled. You can choose the password used in the encryption algorithm by issuing the -k command-line flag provided to cryptcat. You must have the same encryption password on both sides of the connection for this process to work.

The rest of this chapter will assume you are collecting data through the TCP channel we described earlier. When we discuss a new command, assume it will be transferred to the forensic workstation through this "Poor Man's FTP." We have postponed the discussion of how to create the toolkit that will contain these commands until Chapter 16, when we discuss how the response toolkits are created. For the remainder of this chapter, we will analyze the data acquired during the "JBR Bank's Intrusion" live response scenario that you may reference at the beginning of this book.

Analyzing Volatile Data

When we chose to run a live response on a victim system, the web server named JBRWWW in our current scenario, most of the important data we acquired was in volatile data. The volatile data of a victim computer usually contains significant information that helps us determine the "who," "how," and possibly "why" of the incident. To help answer these questions, we collected data from the following areas on the victim machine:

  • The System Date and Time

  • Current Network Connections

  • Open TCP or UDP Ports

  • Which Executables Are Opening TCP or UDP Ports

  • Cached NetBIOS Name Table

  • Users Currently Logged On

  • The Internal Routing Table

  • Running Processes

  • Running Services

  • Scheduled Jobs

  • Open Files

  • Process Memory Dumps

We will address each of these vital areas in their respective sections and analyze the data we acquired from JBRWWW.

The System Date and Time

This is probably the easiest information to collect and understand, yet it is one of the most important pieces of information to the investigator and is easily missed. Without the current time and date, it would be difficult to correlate the information between victim machines if multiple machines were affected. Although in our scenario we are examining a single system, your intrusions may involve tens or hundreds of systems. Keeping the system time and noting the offset from a trusted source (such as a reliable NTP server) is paramount when examining log files or other time-based evidence from multiple servers.

The time and date are simply collected by issuing the time and date commands at the prompt. The time and date for JBRWWW were found to be as follows:

The current date is: Wed 10/01/2003 
The current time is: 21:58:19.29

This is indeed the time we started our live response on JBRWWW. We will also note that this time is in EDT because we are collecting it on the east coast of the United States.

Current Network Connections

It is entirely possible that we could be executing our live response process while the attacker is connected to the server. It could also be possible that the attacker is running a brute force mechanism against other machines on the Internet from this server. Scenarios similar to the ones we mentioned earlier would be detected if we examined the current network connections.

We view a machine’s network connections by issuing the netstat command. Specifically, we need to specify the -an flags with netstat to retrieve all of the network connections and see the raw IP addresses instead of the Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN):

netstat –an

When we executed the netstat command on JBRWWW, we received the following information:

Active Connections
 Proto Local Address     Foreign Address         State
 TCP              LISTENING
 TCP              LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP             LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 TCP            LISTENING
 UDP            *:*          
 UDP            *:*          
 UDP           *:*          
 UDP           *:*          
 UDP           *:*          
 UDP          *:*          
 UDP          *:*          
 UDP          *:*          
 UDP          *:*          
 UDP         *:*          
 UDP         *:*          
 UDP         *:*          
 UDP         *:*          
 UDP         *:*          
 UDP     *:*          
 UDP     *:*          
 UDP     *:*          
 UDP     *:*          

The bolded lines represent the active network connections. The additional lines (that are not bolded) are open ports, which we will address in the next section. Because we know that our forensic workstation is at the IP address, we can ignore corresponding connections. A TCP connection over port 2,222 was expected due to the data transferal process we discussed earlier in this chapter with netcat. After removing all of the other extraneous data, we are left with six interesting lines:

 Proto Local Address       Foreign Address      State

The first line is a connection to JBRWWW's Windows 2000 NetBIOS port. Therefore, the IP address could be issuing commands with a tool like psexec, connecting to a file share with the net use command, or exploiting some other Microsoft Windows functionality. The second line is very interesting. JBRWWW is connecting to port 21, the FTP port, on system Because the administrator swears he was not involved in this connection, we flag this line as suspicious activity. The third line is a connection to an IRC server (TCP port 6,667) at This is another connection the administrator did not participate in, and we note it as such.

The fourth line does not look familiar to us. A quick search on http://www.portsdb.org shows this could be the "nattyserver" or "ChilliASP" service. Because this information does not ring a bell, we flag this connection as "possibly suspicious" and move on. The fifth line details a NetBIOS connection from our victim machine back to This could indicate that the attacker has issued a net use command on JBRWWW to map a share on his attacking machine to the victim machine. Because this IP address showed up more than once in the suspicious activity category, we also flag this connection as suspicious. The last line shows a connection involving JBRWWW’s TCP port 60,906. Ports above 1,024 typically are ephemeral ports. Notice that it is also connecting to an ephemeral port on a different destination IP address at An untrained eye may have passed this line over by now, but we add it to our possible suspicious activity category.

Open TCP or UDP Ports

If we return to the lengthy netcat listing shown earlier, all of the lines that are not bolded are open ports. We are interested in these lines for one reason: an open rogue port usually denotes a backdoor running on the victim machine. Now, we realize that Windows opens a lot of legitimate ports during the course of doing its business, but we can weed many of them out quickly.

The first lines up through TCP port 515 are normal Windows ports, typically started when IIS and simple TCP/IP services are installed on the machine. The next TCP ports, up to the established connections portion of the output, are the ephemeral ports:

 Proto Local Address    Foreign Address    State

We see that there are a lot of ports open that we cannot identify. They could be legitimately open ports or ports onto which the attacker has attached a backdoor. With netstat alone, we cannot identify the purpose of the open ports, so we have to see which executables opened the ports to get a better idea of their purposes.

Executables Opening TCP or UDP Ports

To examine the strange ports that are open on this machine, we must link the open ports to the executables that opened them. There is a tool that does this called FPort, freely distributed at http://www.foundstone.com. FPort does not need additional command-line arguments to execute it during our live response. After we executed FPort, we received the following results:

FPort v1.31 - TCP/IP Process to Port Mapper
Copyright 2000 by Foundstone, Inc.
Securing the dot com world

Pid  Process      Port   Proto Path             
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 7     TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 9     TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 13    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 17    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 19    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1044 inetinfo    -> 21    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
1044 inetinfo    -> 25    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
1044 inetinfo    -> 80    TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
380  svchost     -> 135   TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\svchost.exe 
8    System      -> 139   TCP                 
1044 inetinfo    -> 443   TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
8    System      -> 445   TCP                 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 515   TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
492  MSTask      -> 1025  TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\MSTask.exe 
784  msdtc       -> 1027  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\msdtc.exe  
860  mqsvc       -> 1029  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  
8    System      -> 1030  TCP                 
1044 inetinfo    -> 1031  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
1372 ftp         -> 1033  TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\ftp.exe   
1224 iroffer     -> 1174  TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe
1224 iroffer     -> 1465  TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe
860  mqsvc       -> 1801  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  
860  mqsvc       -> 2103  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  
860  mqsvc       -> 2105  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe 
860  mqsvc       -> 2107  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  
784  msdtc       -> 3372  TCP  C:\WINNT\System32\msdtc.exe  
1348 t_NC        -> 4151  TCP  D:\win_2k\intel\bin\t_NC.EXE 
1224 iroffer     -> 4153  TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe
1424 nc          -> 60906 TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\nc.exe
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 7     UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 9     UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 13    UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 17    UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
1292 tcpsvcs     -> 19    UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\tcpsvcs.exe 
380  svchost     -> 135   UDP  C:\WINNT\system32\svchost.exe 
8    System      -> 137   UDP                 
8    System      -> 138   UDP                 
1244 snmp        -> 161   UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\snmp.exe  
1256 snmptrap    -> 162   UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\snmptrap.exe
8    System      -> 445   UDP                 
224  lsass       -> 500   UDP  C:\WINNT\system32\lsass.exe  
440  svchost     -> 520   UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\svchost.exe 
212  services    -> 1026  UDP  C:\WINNT\system32\services.exe
860  mqsvc       -> 1028  UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  
1044 inetinfo    -> 1032  UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
1044 inetinfo    -> 3456  UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\inetsrv\inetinfo.exe
860  mqsvc       -> 3527  UDP  C:\WINNT\System32\mqsvc.exe  

The unidentified ports from the last section are bolded in this text. The first five lines can most likely be attributed to system binaries opening TCP ports 1,025, 1,027, 1,029, 1,030, and 1,031. The next line shows that someone was running the native FTP client on JBRWWW. Because the administrator states that he was not running the FTP client, we flag this behavior as suspicious activity.

The next two lines detail an executable running in C:\winnt\system32\os2\dll that is named iroffer.exe:

Pid  Process      Port Proto Path             
1224 iroffer    -> 1174 TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe
1224 iroffer    -> 1465 TCP  C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe

Immediately this information seems suspicious because we are not aware of any OS/2-related DLLs that open network ports. A quick search at http://www.google.com for "iroffer" turns up a Web site at http://www.iroffer.org. It is a real Web site, and the tool has legitimate purposes. Apparently, this tool is a bot that connects to IRC channels and offers remote control of JBRWWW! Thus, these two lines provide confirmation that there was an incident involving JBRWWW.

The next five lines in the FPort output show ports opened by mqsvc.exe, a binary affiliated with the message queue in Windows. The next line detects our live response netcat session:

Pid  Process      Port Proto Path             
1348 t_NC      -> 4151 TCP  D:\win_2k\intel\bin\t_NC.EXE 

We renamed our netcat binary on the CD-ROM to t_NC.EXE to symbolize that it was "trusted." It was also renamed so that we would not accidentally run a copy of nc.exe from the victim machine. More information will be presented about live response toolkits in Chapter 16. If we move to the next two lines, we realize that they provide us with most of the information regarding the attacker's backdoors:

Pid  Process      Port  Proto Path             
1224 iroffer   -> 4153  TCP   C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\iroffer.exe
1424 nc        -> 60906 TCP   C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\nc.exe

It seems as if the attacker has not only iroffer on the system but a netcat session as well. We cannot tell what the attacker is doing with the netcat session with only these two lines. It could be an outbound connection, or it could be in listening mode, allowing inbound connections free access to a command shell. When we reexamine the netstat output shown earlier, we see that port 60,906 is actively listening. Therefore, we could conclude through netcat and FPort that the attacker's backdoor on 60,906 is currently listening for connections and is actively connected to a rogue IP address.

We neglected to mention the UDP ports in the previous section, for good reason. UDP is typically used less than TCP because it is a stateless protocol, so UDP ports may be un-familiar to you. One way of determining open UDP ports is to check http://www.portsdb.org along with the analysis of a similarly configured Windows 2000 server with IIS and basic Unix services installed. Of course, that is the hard way of doing it. If you compare the executable files that open UDP ports with the legitimately opened TCP ports on JBRWWW, you will see that they are opened by similar system binaries. Of course, to truly make sure they are system binaries, we must compare the MD5 checksum of these files with a known, trusted source such as Microsoft or by comparing them to copies found on an uncompromised server.

Cached NetBIOS Name Tables

When we examine the system event logs later in this chapter, we will see that Windows (up until version 2003) stored connection specifics by NetBIOS name rather than IP address. As an investigator, this does us no good. An attacker can easily change his NetBIOS name to "HACKER," do damage to your system, and then change it back to the original value. Your logs would have the word "HACKER" as the connecting machine.

Because we want to map a NetBIOS name to an IP address to throttle the nefarious individual, we can issue the nbtstat command during our live response to dump the victim system’s NetBIOS name cache. Please take note that this command will only show us the NetBIOS name table cache, not a complete history of connections. Therefore, values in this table represent connections to and from machines a relatively short time ago. When we run the following command (the -c switch instructs nbtstat to dump the cache):

nbtstat –c

we receive the following results:

Local Area Connection:

Node IpAddress: [] Scope Id: []

         NetBIOS Remote Cache Name Table

    Name             Type     Host Address  Life [sec]
  —————————————————————————————— <20> UNIQUE    562

This is a unique response! The "name" of this server is actually the same as the IP address for this computer located at Usually the NetBIOS name would appear in the "Name" column. When we examine additional evidence later in this chapter, the actual IP address will show up for this computer, which will make our life a lot simpler than having to count on NetBIOS names.

Users Currently Logged On

If you want to be stealthy during your live response, you could run PsLoggedOn, which is a tool distributed within the PsTools suite from http://www.sysinternals.com. This tool will return the users that are currently logged onto the system or accessing the resource shares. When we execute this tool on JBRWWW without command-line parameters, we receive the following information:

PsLoggedOn v1.21 - Logon Session Displayer
Copyright (C) 1999-2000 Mark Russinovich
SysInternals - http://www.sysinternals.com

Users logged on locally:
   8/23/2003 3:32:53 PM  JBRWWW\Administrator

Users logged on via resource shares:
   10/1/2003 9:52:26 PM  (null)\ADMINISTRATOR

There is one user logged in locally. The local Administrator login is attributed to our live response because we must be logged in with Administrator access to run our tools. The second login is also Administrator, but it is a remote login. Therefore, someone is currently accessing JBRWWW as we are investigating the system. Notice that this connection has administrator privileges, which is a prerequisite for PsExec, another tool within the PsTool suite that we will discuss a little later on. Let us return to our current network connections:

Proto  Local Address       Foreign Address      State

For a user to be connected remotely, he or she must be connected to a NetBIOS port. For Windows 2000, it is TCP port 445 or 139. For prior versions of Windows, it was only TCP port 139. Therefore, we now know the attacker’s IP address is

The Internal Routing Table

One of the nefarious uses of a compromised server involves the attacker altering the route tables to redirect traffic in some manner. A benefit for the attacker of rerouting traffic is avoiding a security device, such as a firewall. If there is a firewall in the way of the attacker’s next victim, he may be able to enter the network through a different router that has more permissive access control lists. It is possible that your compromised server may enable him to do this. Another reason an attacker may alter the route table is to redirect the flow of traffic to sniff (capture) the data flying by on the network connection.

We can examine the routing table by issuing the netstat command with the -rn command-line switch. The following data comes from the netstat command when executed on JBRWWW:

Interface List
0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface
0x1000003 ...00 c0 4f 1c 10 2b ...... 3Com EtherLink PCI
Active Routes:

Network Destination      Netmask        Gateway     Interface Metric	     1	     1	     1	     1	     1  	     1	     1
Default Gateway:
Persistent Routes:

Route Table

Active Connections
 Proto Local Address      Foreign Address       State

The routing table looks like a normal routing table for this server. Notice that this command also lists open network connections. The list of open network connections matches exactly the version we saw previously when we issued the netstat -an command.

Running Processes

Ultimately, we would like to know what processes the attacker executed on JBRWWW because they could contain backdoors or further the attacker's efforts into the victim's network. We can list the process table with the pslist tool from the PsTools suite distributed from http://www.sysinternals.com. Executing pslist without flags gives us the following information:

PsList v1.2 - Process Information Lister
Copyright (C) 1999-2002 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals - http://www.sysinternals.com

Process information for JBRWWW:

Name       Pid Pri Thd Hnd   Mem    User Time  Kernel Time   Elapsed Time
Idle         0   0   1   0    16  0:00:00.000  4:32:11.623  942:27:36.131
System       8   8  32 183   212  0:00:00.000  0:00:16.073  942:27:36.131
smss       140  11   6  33   344  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.470  942:27:36.131
csrss      164  13  14 449  1804  0:00:00.460  0:00:06.339  942:27:27.649
winlogon   184  13  14 336  2920  0:00:00.721  0:00:02.513  942:27:26.067
services   212   9  32 532  5432  0:00:02.643  0:00:05.087  942:27:24.084
lsass      224   9  14 276  1208  0:00:01.271  0:00:01.642  942:27:24.044
svchost    380   8   6 222  2464  0:00:02.994  0:00:04.135  942:27:20.108
SPOOLSV    408   8  10  98  2460  0:00:00.050  0:00:00.160  942:27:19.467
svchost    440   8  27 549  5784  0:00:00.510  0:00:00.771  942:27:19.347
regsvc     476   8   2  30   812  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.020  942:27:19.087
mstask     492   8   6  89  1772  0:00:00.040  0:00:00.040  942:27:18.786
explorer   636   8  10 225  1180  0:00:01.972  0:00:05.417  942:25:26.054
msdtc      784   8  22 166  3312  0:00:00.440  0:00:00.180  942:20:24.901
mqsvc      860   8  22 180  3628  0:00:00.160  0:00:00.370  942:20:21.697
inetinfo  1044   8  36 655 10712  0:00:08.352  0:00:05.327  942:17:39.914
snmptrap  1256   8   4  47  1148  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.020  942:16:44.374
tcpsvcs   1292   8   4  77  1444  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.100  942:16:39.958
snmp      1244   8   6 222  3132  0:00:00.050  0:00:00.160  942:13:39.358
cmd        556   8   1  24  1020  0:00:00.110  0:00:00.230  942:08:37.614
dllhost    888   8  11 135  3416  0:00:00.280  0:00:00.160  195:07:22.229
mdm        580   8   3  75  1928  0:00:00.030  0:00:00.030  195:07:21.047
dllhost   1376   8  23 229  4684  0:00:00.130  0:00:00.160  195:06:26.479
PSEXESVC   892   8   6  63  1008  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.030    2:41:47.564
cmd       1272   8   1  25   984  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.030    2:41:15.969
ftp       1372   8   1  39  1176  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.020    2:39:05.861
cmd       1160   8   1  28   976  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.010    2:24:25.536
nc        1424   8   3  40  1012  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.040    2:23:39.800
cmd       1092   8   1  34   968  0:00:00.010  0:00:00.020    2:22:03.992
iroffer   1224   8   5  95  2564  0:00:00.090  0:00:00.200    2:21:30.544
cmd       1468   8   1  30   984  0:00:00.030  0:00:00.030    2:00:02.272
cmd        496   8   1  24   964  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.090    0:00:00.841
T_NC      1348   8   1  28  1004  0:00:00.020  0:00:00.030    0:00:00.821
T_PSLIST  1484   8   2  87  1216  0:00:00.040  0:00:00.030    0:00:00.050

Upon the examination of this data, we see that the first several lines up to the bolded section are system processes by the lengthy elapsed running time. This is indicative of processes running since startup, which are typical system processes. The attacker could have run something on startup, and we would have missed it by skimming the elapsed time, so we would re-verify this process list against an uncompromised server to confirm our theory.

Next, the bolded section shows the processes executed by the attacker. The processes were executed approximately 2 hours and 40 minutes before we ran our live response. This information gives us a time frame of when the attacker was on JBRWWW. Because the machine was booted long ago, his initial attack may have been nearly three hours before our response. If we calculate 2 hours and 40 minutes before our response started (remember the date and time commands?), it was 19:18 on October 1, 2003.

It seems that the attacker ran PSEXECSVC, which is the result of a PsExec command channel initiated to JBRWWW. PsExec is a tool distributed from http://www.sysinternals.com that enables a valid user to connect from one Microsoft Windows machine to another and execute a command over a NetBIOS connection. (That could explain the connections to port 445 that we discovered in an earlier section.) Attackers use this tool to typically run cmd.exe. Knowing that the attacker is running PsExec tells us a lot about this intrusion. First, PsExec will only open a channel if you supply proper administrator-level credentials. Therefore, the attacker has an administrator-level password. Second, the attacker knows one of JBR’s passwords, and that password may work on other machines throughout JBR’s enterprise. Third, the attacker must be running a Microsoft Windows system on his attacking machine to execute PsExec.

We also see that the attacker is running the ftp command. One of the first things attackers usually do when they gain access to a system is to transfer their tools to the victim machine. Perhaps this process is part of the standard hacker methodology. We also see nc, which we will find out is netcat, and iroffer, a program we discussed previously.

The last three lines were part of our live response process, and we expected to see them. This process list will be used again when we acquire memory dumps of the rogue processes we discovered in this section.

Running Services

We saw in the last section that there was a process running with the name PSEXECSVC. "SVC" probably stands for service. We can easily obtain a list of services with the PsService executable distributed in the PsTools suite. The tool is run without command-line arguments to obtain the data we need. The full results of this command are not listed here because they are lengthy, but the full output can be found on your DVD. The only service that catches our attention is the following:

PsService v1.01 - local and remote services viewer/controller
Copyright (C) 2001 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals - http://www.sysinternals.com

   TYPE      : 10 WIN32_OWN_PROCESS 
   STATE      : 4 RUNNING
   WIN32_EXIT_CODE    : 0 (0x0)
   SERVICE_EXIT_CODE : 0 (0x0)
   CHECKPOINT       : 0x0
   WAIT_HINT       : 0x0

The other services are plainly Microsoft Windows services, and they contain valid descriptions about their purposes. This service does not have a description. The (null) line is where a description would typically be placed. We can see that this service is running, and with a little research on the Internet, we find information linking PSEXECSVC to the PsExec tool. It is important to note that even if the PsExec tool were renamed, we would still see this service in the service listing.

Services are important to us because an attacker can hide programs in them. If you examine Psservice’s output, you will see that it is lengthy. An extra service in the list is easy for an investigator to miss. In addition, unlike general processes, services can be forced to start up at reboot. We have examined many intrusions in real life that use the technique of starting backdoors, FTP servers, and more using Firedaemon. Firedaemon makes any process a service and enables you to force its startup on reboots.

Scheduled Jobs

Attackers with administrative access can schedule jobs. This will enable an attacker to run commands when he is not even on the box. For an example, an attacker may want to schedule a job that will open a backdoor every night at 2AM. That way, your usual security port scans will not pick up the backdoor during work hours. By typing at, we see the following jobs scheduled on JBRWWW:

There are no entries in the list.

Therefore, we do not have to worry about that type of activity during this investigation.

Open Files

By examining the list of open files, we are able to determine more information pertinent to our investigation. The PsTools suite contains another tool we can use to retrieve this information. The program's name is Psfile. When we run Psfile on JBRWWW, we receive the following results:

PsFile v1.01 - local and remote network file lister
Copyright (C) 2001 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals - http://www.sysinternals.com

Files opened remotely on JBRWWW:

[100] \PIPE\psexecsvc
  Locks:  0
  Access: Read Write 
[101] \PIPE\psexecsvc-CAINE-2936-stdin
  Locks:  0
  Access: Write 
[102] \PIPE\psexecsvc-CAINE-2936-stdout
  Locks:  0
  Access: Read 
[103] \PIPE\psexecsvc-CAINE-2936-stderr
  Locks:  0
  Access: Read 

We see that Psfile reports a system pipe opened by PSEXECSVC. We now see the word CAINE. If you have become familiar with PsExec and Psfile, you would know that CAINE is the NetBIOS name of the computer that connected to JBRWWW using PsExec. If we were able to seize a potential attacker's computer, we might want to search for this keyword. We will talk about keyword searching later in this book when we discuss analyzing forensic duplications.

Process Memory Dumps

We have seen that the attacker started rogue processes on JBRWWW, yet we do not really know what exactly the attacker ran. Through previous forensic experience, we can make educated guesses, as we did in the case of the netcat session being bound to a command prompt, but we need a good way to find out for sure. To help us accomplish this, we will capture the memory space of the suspect processes.

Traditionally, incident response and forensic investigators rarely collect the memory space utilized by suspect processes from Windows systems. This is primarily due to the lack of documented methods, techniques, and tools for this process. The nature of the operating system, combined with associated imposed restrictions on protected memory areas, makes memory acquisition and analysis complex and problematic. However, for several reasons, not the least of which is the increasing sophistication of intrusion tools and techniques, the acquisition and processing of application and system memory may be of paramount importance. Such memory structures may provide critical investigative and evidentiary material of a volatile nature—data that may be lost when the system is powered down to perform a traditional forensic duplication. Examples of the types of data that may be lost include the command line utilized by the intruder to execute a rogue process, remotely executed console commands and their resultant output, clear-text passwords, and unencrypted data. Although we won’t go into detail on the structure, organization, and management of memory on these operating systems, we recommend having a working knowledge of them to facilitate examination of captured memory. An excellent reference is Inside Windows 2000, Third Edition, by David Solomon and Mark Russinovich.

Microsoft provides a utility called userdump.exe for the Windows NT family of operating systems that enables us to capture the memory space utilized by any executing process. This tool is a component of the Microsoft OEM Support tools package available at


Because userdump writes the process’s extracted memory to disk, we can’t use our netcat sessions to transfer the data directly. We want to have as small an impact as possible on the suspect system, so before we execute userdump commands, which would write large files to the suspect system’s hard drive (possibly deleting material of evidentiary value in unallocated space), we will map a network share directly to our forensic system. In this case, we mapped a share from our forensic system as drive Z: by using the following command:

C:\> net use Z: \\\data

The command completed successfully.

Now that we have a network-accessible storage area established on our forensic workstation, we can familiarize ourselves with userdump. When we execute userdump.exe without command-line options, user help is displayed:

User Mode Process Dumper (Version 3.0)
Copyright (c) 1999 Microsoft Corp. All rights reserved.

userdump -p
  Displays a list of running processes and process IDs.userdump [-k] <ProcessSpec> 
  Dumps one process or processes that share an image binary file name.

  -k optionally causes processes to be killed after being dumped.

  <ProcessSpec> is a decimal or 0x-prefixed hex process ID, or the
    base name and extension (no path) of the image file used to create
    a process.

  <TargetDumpFile> is a legal Win32 file specification. If not specified,
    dump files are generated in the current directory using a name
    based on the image file name.

userdump -m [-k] <ProcessSpec> [<ProcessSpec>...] [-d <TargetDumpPath>]
  Same as above, except dumps multiple processes.
  -d <TargetDumpPath> supplies the directory where the dumps will go.
    The default is the current directory.

userdump -g [-k] [-d <TargetDumpPath>]
  Similar to above, except dumps Win32 GUI apps that appear hang.

Note that userdump has several useful options, including capturing multiple processes on a single command line and displaying running processes. To execute userdump on a single suspect process, we simply supply it with a process ID (PID) that we obtained from the earlier pslist command and a destination. To save the attacker's netcat session (PID 1,424) to our mapped hard drive at Z:, we executed the following command:

userdump 1424 Z:\nc_1424.dmp

User Mode Process Dumper (Version 3.0)
Copyright (c) 1999 Microsoft Corp. All rights reserved.

Dumping process 1424 (nc.exe) to

The process was dumped successfully.

We acquired the process memory dumps for processes 1092, 1160, 1272, 1468, 1372, 1224, 1424, and 892 and placed the resultant files on your evidence DVD.

Now that we have the suspect application's memory dump files, we can perform an initial examination with dumpchk.exe, a utility provided as a component of the Debugging Tools for Windows, which are available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/ddk/debugging/default.mspx. Several of the utilities distributed as part of this package, which can facilitate advanced analysis of captured memory processes such as the kernel and user-mode debuggers, may require the symbols from the Windows operating system that were the source of the memory dump. These symbols and information on their use are available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/ddk/debugging/symbols.mspx.

The dumpchk utility is actually designed to validate a memory dump; however, it does provide valuable information. On our forensic workstation, we executed dumpchk.exe to examine the process memory dump of the suspected netcat process:

D:\dumpchk nc_1424.dmp
Microsoft (R) Windows Debugger Version 6.2.0013.1
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Loading Dump File [nc_1424.dmp]
User Dump File: Only application data is available

Windows 2000 Version 2195 UP Free x86 compatible
Product: WinNt

[portions removed for brevity]

Windows 2000 Version 2195 UP Free x86 compatible
Product: WinNt
kernel32.dll version: 5.00.2191.1
PEB at 7FFDF000
  InheritedAddressSpace:  No
  ReadImageFileExecOptions: No
  BeingDebugged:      No
  ImageBaseAddress:     00400000
  Ldr.Initialized: Yes
  Ldr.InInitializationOrderModuleList: 131f38 . 13b470
  Ldr.InLoadOrderModuleList: 131ec0 . 13b460
  Ldr.InMemoryOrderModuleList: 131ec8 . 13b468
        Base TimeStamp                     Module
      400000 34d74d22 Feb 03 12:00:18 1998 C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\nc.exe
    77f80000 38175b30 Oct 27 15:06:08 1999 C:\WINNT\System32\ntdll.dll
    77e80000 3844d034 Dec 01 02:37:24 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\KERNEL32.dll
    75050000 3843995d Nov 30 04:31:09 1999 C:\WINNT\System32\WSOCK32.dll
    75030000 3843995d Nov 30 04:31:09 1999 C:\WINNT\System32\WS2_32.DLL
    78000000 37f2c227 Sep 29 20:51:35 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\MSVCRT.DLL
    77db0000 3844d034 Dec 01 02:37:24 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\ADVAPI32.DLL
    77d40000 384700c2 Dec 02 18:29:06 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\RPCRT4.DLL
    75020000 3843995d Nov 30 04:31:09 1999 C:\WINNT\System32\WS2HELP.DLL
    74fd0000 3843995d Nov 30 04:31:09 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\msafd.dll
    77e10000 3844d034 Dec 01 02:37:24 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\USER32.DLL
    77f40000 382bd384 Nov 12 03:44:52 1999 C:\WINNT\system32\GDI32.DLL
    75010000 3843995d Nov 30 04:31:09 1999 C:\WINNT\System32\wshtcpip.dll
  SubSystemData:     0
  ProcessHeap:       130000
  ProcessParameters: 20000
    WindowTitle: 'nc -d -L -n -p 60906 -e cmd.exe'
    ImageFile:   'C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll\nc.exe'
    CommandLine: 'nc -d -L -n -p 60906 -e cmd.exe'
    DllPath:   'C:\WINNT\system32\os2\dll;.;C:\WINNT\System32;C:\WINNT\system;C:\WINNT;C:\WINNT\
system32;C:\WINNT;C:\WINNT\System32\Wbem' Environment: 0x10000 Finished dump check

The output confirms the file name and location and provides a list of associated dynamic link library files along with timestamps and the command line utilized to initiate the netcat process. If you are familiar with netcat, the bolded command line in this example should look familiar. It indicates that netcat was configured to detach from the console, listen on port 60,906, and execute a command shell whenever a connection occurred. This volatile data would have been lost if the process memory wasn't captured, and it simply would not be available if you examined the captured nc.exe binary alone. Subsequent examination with dumpchk revealed that PID 1,224 was initiated with a command line of iroffer myconfig, and PID 1,372 with ftp

Now we can examine the memory dumps for additional information by searching through the contiguous ASCII strings that are embedded within. Because data stored by an application or process in memory may be in Unicode format, we need to use a Unicode-capable Windows version of the strings command. One is available at http://www.sysinternals.com/ntw2k/source/misc.shtml, which displays Unicode and standard ASCII by default. The Linux strings command does not display Unicode strings by default, so if you are using this as a forensic processing platform, make sure that you enable this option.

Running strings on the nc_1424 memory dump, you'll immediately see the application environment, which provides, among other things, the computer name, the system path, the location on the file system of the executed application, and the command line used:

strings nc_1424.dmp

Strings v2.1
Copyright (C) 1999-2003 Mark Russinovich
Systems Internals - http://www.sysinternals.com

ALLUSERSPROFILE=C:\Documents and Settings\All Users
CommonProgramFiles=C:\Program Files\Common Files
PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER=x86 Family 6 Model 6 Stepping 5, GenuineIntel
ProgramFiles=C:\Program Files
USERPROFILE=C:\Documents and Settings\Default User
nc -d -L -n -p 60906 -e cmd.exe

Additional strings you will come across when you examine the captured memory files include these:

*** XDCC Autosave: Saving... Done
*** Saving Ignore List... Done
es.c : 328 0.000000
*** XDCC Autosave: Saving... Done
*** Saving Ignore List... Done
Trace -1 mainloop       src/iroffer.c You A|
*** XDCC Autosave: Saving... Done
*** Saving Ignore List... Done
ies.c : 328 0.000000
*** XDCC Autosave: Saving... Done
*** Saving Ignore List... Done
 Trace -1 mainloop       src/iroffer.c 
iroffer myconfig

C:\WINNT\System32\cmd.exe - iroffer myconfig
    23 File(s)   1,739,715 bytes
     2 Dir(s)  3,451,928,576 bytes free
iroffer myconfig
       2 Dir(s)  3,451,928,576 bytes free

xUSER ftp
User ( 
FTP. control

Although nothing here is earth shattering, it does provide information that supports the analysis. In subsequent chapters, you will see a situation where the examination of process memory plays a critical role.

We acquired the process memory dumps for the following processes and placed them on your evidence DVD: 1,092, 1,160, 1,272, 1,468, 1,372, 1,224, 1,424, and 892.

Full System Memory Dumps

Now we have the application memory of the suspect processes, but we also want to capture all of the system memory, which may have remnants of other intruder processes or previous sessions. We can obtain it using a program you are probably already familiar with—dd.

George M. Garner, Jr. has modified dd, along with several other useful utilities, specifically for forensic investigation. Enhancements include built-in md5sum, compression, and logging abilities, to name a few. By incorporating these frequently used options that are normally associated with separate commands, he significantly reduces I/O, thus increasing acquisition speed. For more information, and to download his tools, go to his Forensic Acquisition Utilities page at http://users.erols.com/gmgarner/forensics. Some of Garner’s utilities are based on the UnxUtils distribution, which provides many useful GNU utilities. The UnxUtils are available at http://unxutils.sourceforge.net.

By using the /dev/kmem file on Unix systems, we can obtain a logical view of physical memory from a live Unix operating system. Unfortunately, Windows NT operating systems do not provide such a file object, but Garner’s version of dd creates a /Device/PhysicalMemory section object. A section object, also called a file-mapping object, represents a block of memory that two or more processes can share, and it can be mapped to a page file or other on-disk file. By mapping the /Device/PhysicalMemory section object to virtual address space, Garner’s version of dd enables us to generate a dump representing system memory.

Using Mr. Garner's version of dd, we used the following command line to capture system memory:

D:\>dd.exe if=\\.\physicalmemory of=z:\JBRWWW_full_memory_dump.dd bs=4096
Forensic Acquisition Utilities, 3, 16, 2, 1030
dd, 1, 0, 0, 1030
Copyright (C) 2002 George M. Garner Jr.

Command Line: dd.exe if=\\.\physicalmemory of=z:\JBRWWW_full_memory_dump.dd bs=4096
Based on original version developed by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp
Microsoft Windows: Version 5.0 (Build 2195.Professional)

02/10/2003 02:41:01 (UTC)
01/10/2003 22:41:01 (local time)

Current User: JBRWWW\Administrator

Total physical memory reported: 129260 KB
Copying physical memory...
    Stopped reading physical memory:
The parameter is incorrect.

Output z:\JBRWWW_full_memory_dump.dd 129260/129260 Kbytes 

This memory image, named JBRWWW_full_memory_dump.dd, is on the evidence DVD for your review. Although we didn't do so in this case, you can also use this version of dd to obtain an image of the entire physical hard drive from the live system without requiring a shutdown, reboot, or disruption of service. To accomplish this, we would have used the following command line:

D:\>dd.exe if=\\.\physicaldrive0 of=z:\JBRWWW_physicaldrive0.dd bs=4096

During a review, the strings command revealed several pieces of information relevant to the intrusion response.

The following are some of the commands the attacker executed during the intrusion. It would appear that the intruder pinged himself at, initiated an ipconfig /all command, initiated an FTP session, and executed iroffer.exe:

Ping statistics for
  Packets: Sent = 2, Received = 2, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
  Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
ipconfig /all
T\System32\cmd.exe - ping 95.16
cd ..

This is the output of an ipconfig /all command extracted from the system memory file:

Windows 2000 IP Configuration
Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : jbrwww
Primary DNS Suffix . . . . . . .  : 
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Broadcast
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : jbrbank.com
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : jbrbank.com
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : 3Com 3C920 Integrated Fast Ethernet Controller 
(3C905C-TX Compatible)
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-C0-4F-1C-10-2B
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . :
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . :
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . :
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . :
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, August 23, 2003 3:55:31 PM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : T = 1.0

This appears to be an iroffer status window, which may show files the intruder "offered" out.

XDCC Autosave: Saving... Done
—> Saving Ignore List... Done
—>  boot.ini (0K)
—>  Documents and Settings (4K)
—>  Inetpub (4K)
—>  IO.SYS (0K)
—>  MSDOS.SYS (0K)
—>  ntldr (209K)
—>  pagefile.sys (209K)
—>  Program Files (4K)
—>  System Volume Information (0K)
—>  update.exe (0K)
—>  WINNT (24K)
—> 16 Total Files
—> ADMIN LISTUL Requested (DCC Chat)

During the review of system memory, we found several sections of IIS logs. In the following section, the successful Unicode exploit launched from was found in system memory.

#Software: Microsoft Internet Information Services 5.0
#Version: 1.0
#Date: 2003-10-01 22:58:53
#Fields: time c-ip cs-method cs-uri-stem sc-status 
22:58:53 GET /NULL.printer 404
23:00:55 HEAD /iisstart.asp 200
23:01:18 GET /iisstart.asp 200
23:01:18 GET /pagerror.gif 200
23:01:18 GET /favicon.ico 404
23:03:23 GET /NULL.printer 404
23:08:45 GET /NULL.printer 404
23:15:09 OPTIONS / 200
23:16:30 OPTIONS / 200
23:16:30 PROPFIND /ADMIN$ 404
23:17:04 GET /scripts/../../../../winnt/system32/cmd.exe 200
23:17:54 GET /scripts/../../../../winnt/system32/cmd.exe 502
23:20:19 GET /scripts/..%5c..%5c..%5c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe 200
23:32:43 OPTIONS / 200
23:32:43 PROPFIND /ADMIN$ 404
23:33:52 PROPFIND /ADMIN$ 404
23:58:16 OPTIONS / 200
23:58:16 PROPFIND /ADMIN$ 404

If the intruder had deleted the log files on the hard drive, this volatile data may have played a critical role in identifying how, when, and where the intrusion was initiated.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020