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The transmission control protocol (TCP) is the most predominant transport layer protocol in the Internet today. It transports more than 90% percent of the traffic on the Internet. Its reliability, end-to-end congestion control mechanism, byte-stream transport mechanism, and, above all, its elegant and simple design have not only contributed to the success of the Internet, but also have made TCP an influencing protocol in the design of many of the other protocols and applications. Its adaptability to the congestion in the network has been an important feature leading to graceful degradation of the services offered by the network at times of extreme congestion. TCP in its traditional form was designed and optimized only for wired networks. Extensions of TCP that provide improved performance across wired and single-hop wireless networks were discussed in Chapter 4. Since TCP is widely used today and the efficient integration of an ad hoc wireless network with the Internet is paramount wherever possible, it is essential to have mechanisms that can improve TCP's performance in ad hoc wireless networks. This would enable the seamless operation of application-level protocols such as FTP, SMTP, and HTTP across the integrated ad hoc wireless networks and the Internet.

This section discusses the issues and challenges that TCP experiences when used in ad hoc wireless networks as well as some of the existing solutions for overcoming them.

9.5.1 A Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP

TCP [1] is a reliable, end-to-end, connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides a byte-stream-based service [the stream of bytes from the application layer is split into TCP segments, [1] the length of each segment limited by a maximum segment size (MSS)]. The major responsibilities of TCP include congestion control, flow control, in-order delivery of packets, and reliable transportation of packets. Congestion control deals with excess traffic in the network which may lead to degradation in the performance of the network, whereas flow control controls the per-flow traffic such that the receiver capacity is not exceeded. TCP regulates the number of packets sent to the network by expanding and shrinking the congestion window. The TCP sender starts the session with a congestion window value of one MSS. It sends out one MSS and waits for the ACK. Once the ACK is received within the retransmission timeout (RTO) period, the congestion window is doubled and two MSSs are originated. This doubling of the congestion window with every successful acknowledgment of all the segments in the current congestion window, is called slow-start (a more appropriate name would be exponential start, as it actually grows exponentially) and it continues until the congestion window reaches the slow-start threshold (the slow-start threshold has an initial value of 64 KB). Figure 9.2 shows the variation of the congestion window in TCP; the slow start phase is between points A-B. Once it reaches the slow-start threshold (in Figure 9.2, the slow-start threshold is initially taken as 16 for illustration), it grows linearly, adding one MSS to the congestion window on every ACK received. This linear growth, which continues until the congestion window reaches the receiver window (which is advertised by the TCP receiver and carries the information about the receiver's buffer size), is called congestion avoidance, as it tries to avoid increasing the congestion window exponentially, which will surely worsen the congestion in the network. TCP updates the RTO period with the current round-trip delay calculated on the arrival of every ACK packet. If the ACK packet does not arrive within the RTO period, then it assumes that the packet is lost. TCP assumes that the packet loss is due to the congestion in the network and it invokes the congestion control mechanism. The TCP sender does the following during congestion control: (i) reduces the slow-start threshold to half the current congestion window or two MSSs whichever is larger, (ii) resets the congestion window size to one MSS, (iii) activates the slow-start algorithm, and (iv) resets the RTO with an exponential back-off value which doubles with every subsequent retransmission. The slow-start process further doubles the congestion window with every successfully acknowledged window and, upon reaching the slow-start threshold, it enters into the congestion avoidance phase.

09fig02.gifFigure 9.2 Illustration of TCP congestion window.

The TCP sender also assumes a packet loss if it receives three consecutive duplicate ACKs (DUPACKs) [repeated acknowledgments for the same TCP segment that was successfully received in-order at the receiver]. Upon reception of three DUPACKs, the TCP sender retransmits the oldest unacknowledged segment. This is called the fast retransmit scheme. When the TCP receiver receives out-of-order packets, it generates DUPACKs to indicate to the TCP sender about the sequence number of the last in-order segment received successfully.

Among the several extensions of TCP, some of the important schemes are discussed below. The regular TCP which was discussed above is also called as TCP Tahoe [2] (in most of the existing literature). TCP Reno [3] is similar to TCP Tahoe with fast recovery. On timeout or arrival of three DUPACKs, the TCP Reno sender enters the fast recovery during which (refer to points C-J-K in Figure 9.2) the TCP Reno sender retransmits the lost packet, reduces the slow-start threshold and congestion window size to half the size of the current congestion window, and increments the congestion window linearly (one MSS per DUPACK) with every subsequent DUPACK. On reception of a new ACK (not a DUPACK, i.e., an ACK with a sequence number higher than the highest seen sequence number so far), the TCP Reno resets the congestion window with the slow-start threshold and enters the congestion avoidance phase similar to TCP Tahoe (points K-L-M in Figure 9.2).

J. C. Hoe proposed TCP-New Reno [4] extending the TCP Reno in which the TCP sender does not exit the fast-recovery state, when a new ACK is received. Instead it continues to remain in the fast-recovery state until all the packets originated are acknowledged. For every intermediate ACK packet, TCP-New Reno assumes the next packet after the last acknowledged one is lost and is retransmitted.

TCP with selective ACK (SACK) [5], [6] improves the performance of TCP by using the selective ACKs provided by the receiver. The receiver sends a SACK instead of an ACK, which contains a set of SACK blocks. These SACK blocks contain information about the recently received packets which is used by the TCP sender while retransmitting the lost packets.

9.5.2 Why Does TCP Not Perform Well in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks?

The major reasons behind throughput degradation that TCP faces when used in ad hoc wireless networks are the following:

  • Misinterpretation of packet loss: Traditional TCP was designed for wired networks where the packet loss is mainly attributed to network congestion. Network congestion is detected by the sender's packet RTO period. Once a packet loss is detected, the sender node assumes congestion in the network and invokes a congestion control algorithm. Ad hoc wireless networks experience a much higher packet loss due to factors such as high bit error rate (BER) in the wireless channel, increased collisions due to the presence of hidden terminals, presence of interference, location-dependent contention, uni-directional links, frequent path breaks due to mobility of nodes, and the inherent fading properties of the wireless channel.

  • Frequent path breaks: Ad hoc wireless networks experience dynamic changes in network topology because of the unrestricted mobility of the nodes in the network. The topology changes lead to frequent changes in the connectivity of wireless links and hence the route to a particular destination may need to be recomputed very often. The responsibility of finding a route and reestablishing it once it gets broken is attached to the network layer (Chapter 7 discusses network layer routing protocols in detail). Once a path is broken, the routing protocol initiates a route reestablishment process. This route reestablishment process takes a significant amount of time to obtain a new route to the destination. The route reestablishment time is a function of the number of nodes in the network, transmission ranges of nodes, current topology of the network, bandwidth of the channel, traffic load in the network, and the nature of the routing protocol. If the route reestablishment time is greater than the RTO period of the TCP sender, then the TCP sender assumes congestion in the network, retransmits the lost packets, and initiates the congestion control algorithm. These retransmissions can lead to wastage of bandwidth and battery power. Eventually, when a new route is found, the TCP throughput continues to be low for some time, as it has to build up the congestion window since the traditional TCP undergoes a slow start.

  • Effect of path length: It is found that the TCP throughput degrades rapidly with an increase in path length in string (linear chain) topology ad hoc wireless networks [7], [8]. This is shown in Figure 9.3. The possibility of a path break increases with path length. Given that the probability of a link break is pl, the probability of a path break (pb) for a path of length k can be obtained as Pb = 1 — (1 — pl)k. Figure 9.4 shows the variation of pb with path length for pl = 0.1. Hence as the path length increases, the probability of a path break increases, resulting in the degradation of the throughput in the network.

    09fig03.gifFigure 9.3 Variation of TCP throughput with path length.

    09fig04.gifFigure 9.4 Variation of pb, with path length (pl = 0.1).

  • Misinterpretation of congestion window: TCP considers the congestion window as a measure of the rate of transmission that is acceptable to the network and the receiver. In ad hoc wireless networks, the congestion control mechanism is invoked when the network gets partitioned or when a path break occurs. This reduces the congestion window and increases the RTO period. When the route is reconfigured, the congestion window may not reflect the transmission rate acceptable to the new route, as the new route may actually accept a much higher transmission rate. Hence, when there are frequent path breaks, the congestion window may not reflect the maximum transmission rate acceptable to the network and the receiver.

  • Asymmetric link behavior: The radio channel used in ad hoc wireless networks has different properties such as location-dependent contention, environmental effects on propagation, and directional properties leading to asymmetric links. The directional links can result in delivery of a packet to a node, but failure in the delivery of the acknowledgment back to the sender. It is possible for a bidirectional link to become uni-directional for a while. This can also lead to TCP invoking the congestion control algorithm and several retransmissions.

  • Uni-directional path: Traditional TCP relies on end-to-end ACK for ensuring reliability. Since the ACK packet is very short compared to a data segment, ACKs consume much less bandwidth in wired networks. In ad hoc wireless networks, every TCP ACK packet requires RTS-CTS-Data-ACK exchange in case IEEE 802.11 is used as the underlying MAC protocol. This can lead to an additional overhead of more than 70 bytes if there are no retransmissions. This can lead to significant bandwidth consumption on the reverse path, which may or may not contend with the forward path. If the reverse path contends with the forward path, it can lead to the reduction in the throughput of the forward path. Some routing protocols select the forward path to be also used as the reverse path, whereas certain other routing protocols may use an entirely different or partially different path for the ACKs. A path break on an entirely different reverse path can affect the performance of the network as much as a path break in the forward path.

  • Multipath routing: There exists a set of QoS routing and best-effort routing protocols that use multiple paths between a source-destination pair. There are several advantages in using multipath routing. Some of these advantages include the reduction in route computing time, the high resilience to path breaks, high call acceptance ratio, and better security. For TCP, these advantages may add to throughput degradation. These can lead to a significant amount of out-of-order packets, which in turn generates a set of duplicate acknowledgments (DUPACKs) which cause additional power consumption and invocation of congestion control.

  • Network partitioning and remerging: The randomly moving nodes in an ad hoc wireless network can lead to network partitions. As long as the TCP sender, the TCP receiver, and all the intermediate nodes in the path between the TCP sender and the TCP receiver remain in the same partition, the TCP connection will remain intact. It is likely that the sender and receiver of the TCP session will remain in different partitions and, in certain cases, that only the intermediate nodes are affected by the network partitioning. Figure 9.5 illustrates the effect of network partitions in ad hoc wireless networks. A network with two TCP sessions A and B is shown in Figure 9.5 (a) at time instant t1. Due to dynamic topological changes, the network gets partitioned into two as in Figure 9.5 (b) at time t2. Now the TCP session A's sender and receiver belong to two different partitions and the TCP session B experiences a path break. These partitions could merge back into a single network at time t3 (refer to Figure 9.5 (c)).

    09fig05.gifFigure 9.5 Effect of partitioning and merging of network.

  • The use of sliding-window-based transmission: TCP uses a sliding window for flow control. The transmission of packets is decided by the size of the window, and when the ACKs arrive from a destination, further packets are transmitted. This avoids the use of individual fine-grained timers for transmission of each TCP flow. Such a design is preferred in order to improve scalability of the protocol in high-bandwidth networks such as the Internet where millions of TCP connections may be established with some heavily loaded servers. The use of a sliding window can also contribute to degraded performance in bandwidth-constrained ad hoc wireless networks where the MAC layer protocol may not exhibit short-term and long-term fairness. For example, the popular MAC protocols such as CSMA/CA protocol show short-term unfairness, where a node that has captured the channel has a higher probability of capturing the channel again. This unfairness can lead to a number of TCP ACK packets being delivered to the TCP sender in succession, leading to a burstiness in traffic due to the subsequent transmission of TCP segments.

The enhancements to TCP that improve the performance of TCP in ad hoc wireless networks are discussed in the following sections.

9.5.3 Feedback-Based TCP

Feedback-based TCP [also referred to as TCP feedback (TCP-F)] [9] proposes modifications to the traditional TCP for improving performance in ad hoc wireless networks. It uses a feedback-based approach. TCP-F requires the support of a reliable link layer and a routing protocol that can provide feedback to the TCP sender about the path breaks. The routing protocol is expected to repair the broken path within a reasonable time period. TCP-F aims to minimize the throughput degradation resulting from the frequent path breaks that occur in ad hoc wireless networks. During a TCP session, there could be several path breaks resulting in considerable packet loss and path reestablishment delay. Upon detection of packet loss, the sender in a TCP session invokes the congestion control algorithm leading to the exponential back-off of retransmission timers and a decrease in congestion window size. This was discussed earlier in this chapter.

In TCP-F, an intermediate node, upon detection of a path break, originates a route failure notification (RFN) packet. This RFN packet is routed toward the sender of the TCP session. The TCP sender's information is expected to be obtained from the TCP packets being forwarded by the node. The intermediate node that originates the RFN packet is called the failure point (FP). The FP maintains information about all the RFNs it has originated so far. Every intermediate node that forwards the RFN packet understands the route failure, updates its routing table accordingly, and avoids forwarding any more packets on that route. If any of the intermediate nodes that receive RFN has an alternate route to the same destination, then it discards the RFN packet and uses the alternate path for forwarding further data packets, thus reducing the control overhead involved in the route reconfiguration process. Otherwise, it forwards the RFN toward the source node. When a TCP sender receives an RFN packet, it goes into a state called snooze. In the snooze state, a sender stops sending any more packets to the destination, cancels all the timers, freezes its congestion window, freezes the retransmission timer, and sets up a route failure timer. This route failure timer is dependent on the routing protocol, network size, and the network dynamics and is to be taken as the worst-case route reconfiguration time. When the route failure timer expires, the TCP sender changes from the snooze state to the connected state. Figure 9.6 shows the operation of the TCP-F protocol. In the figure, a TCP session is set up between node A and node D over the path A-B-C-D [refer to Figure 9.6 (a)]. When the intermediate link between node C and node D fails, node C originates an RFN packet and forwards it on the reverse path to the source node [see Figure 9.6 (b)]. The sender's TCP state is changed to the snooze state upon receipt of an RFN packet. If the link CD rejoins, or if any of the intermediate nodes obtains a path to destination node D, a route reestablishment notification (RRN) packet is sent to node A and the TCP state is updated back to the connected state [Figure 9.6 (c)].

09fig06.gifFigure 9.6 Operation of TCP-F.

As soon as a node receives an RRN packet, it transmits all the packets in its buffer, assuming that the network is back to its original state. This can also take care of all the packets that were not acknowledged or lost during transit due to the path break. In fact, such a step avoids going through the slow-start process that would otherwise have occurred immediately after a period of congestion. The route failure timer set after receiving the RFN packet ensures that the sender does not remain in the snooze state indefinitely. Once the route failure timer expires, the sender goes back to the connected state in which it reactivates the frozen timers and starts sending the buffered and unacknowledged packets. This can also take care of the loss of the RRN packet due to any possible subsequent congestion. TCP-F permits the TCP congestion control algorithm to be in effect when the sender is not in the snooze state, thus making it sensitive to congestion in the network.

Advantages and Disadvantages

TCP-F provides a simple feedback-based solution to minimize the problems arising out of frequent path breaks in ad hoc wireless networks. At the same time, it also permits the TCP congestion control mechanism to respond to congestion in the network. TCP-F depends on the intermediate nodes' ability to detect route failures and the routing protocols' capability to reestablish a broken path within a reasonably short duration. Also, the FP should be able to obtain the correct path (the path which the packet traversed) to the TCP-F sender for sending the RFN packet. This is simple with a routing protocol that uses source routing [i.e., dynamic source routing (DSR)]. If a route to the sender is not available at the FP, then additional control packets may need to be generated for routing the RFN packet. TCP-F has an additional state compared to the traditional TCP state machine, and hence its implementation requires modifications to the existing TCP libraries. Another disadvantage of TCP-F is that the congestion window used after a new route is obtained may not reflect the achievable transmission rate acceptable to the network and the TCP-F receiver.

9.5.4 TCP with Explicit Link Failure Notification

Holland and Vaidya proposed the use of TCP with explicit link failure notification (TCP-ELFN) [8] for improving TCP performance in ad hoc wireless networks. This is similar to TCP-F, except for the handling of explicit link failure notification (ELFN) and the use of TCP probe packets for detecting the route reestablishment. The ELFN is originated by the node detecting a path break upon detection of a link failure to the TCP sender. This can be implemented in two ways: (i) by sending an ICMP [2] destination unreachable (DUR) message to the sender, or (ii) by piggy-backing this information on the RouteError [3] message that is sent to the sender.

Once the TCP sender receives the ELFN packet, it disables its retransmission timers and enters a standby state. In this state, it periodically originates probe packets to see if a new route is reestablished. Upon reception of an ACK by the TCP receiver for the probe packets, it leaves the standby state, restores the retransmission timers, and continues to function as normal.

Advantages and Disadvantages

TCP-ELFN improves the TCP performance by decoupling the path break information from the congestion information by the use of ELFN. It is less dependent on the routing protocol and requires only link failure notification about the path break. The disadvantages of TCP-ELFN include the following: (i) when the network is temporarily partitioned, the path failure may last longer and this can lead to the origination of periodic probe packets consuming bandwidth and power and (ii) the congestion window used after a new route is obtained may not reflect the achievable transmission rate acceptable to the network and the TCP receiver.

9.5.5 TCP-BuS

TCP with buffering capability and sequence information (TCP-BuS) [10] is similar to the TCP-F and TCP-ELFN in its use of feedback information from an intermediate node on detection of a path break. But TCP-BuS is more dependent on the routing protocol compared to TCP-F and TCP-ELFN. TCP-BuS was proposed, with associativity-based routing (ABR) [11] protocol as the routing scheme. Hence, it makes use of some of the special messages such as localized query (LQ) and REPLY, defined as part of ABR for finding a partial path. These messages are modified to carry TCP connection and segment information. Upon detection of a path break, an upstream intermediate node [called pivot node (PN)] originates an explicit route disconnection notification (ERDN) message. This ERDN packet is propagated to the TCP-BuS sender and, upon reception of it, the TCP-BuS sender stops transmission and freezes all timers and windows as in TCP-F. The packets in transit at the intermediate nodes from the TCP-BuS sender to the PN are buffered until a new partial path from the PN to the TCP-BuS receiver is obtained by the PN. In order to avoid unnecessary retransmissions, the timers for the buffered packets at the TCP-BuS sender and at the intermediate nodes up to PN use timeout values proportional to the round-trip time (RTT). The intermediate nodes between the TCP-BuS sender and the PN can request the TCP-BuS sender to selectively retransmit any of the lost packets. Upon detection of a path break, the downstream node originates a route notification (RN) packet to the TCP-BuS receiver, which is forwarded by all the downstream nodes in the path. An intermediate node that receives an RN packet discards all packets belonging to that flow. The ERDN packet is propagated to the TCP-BuS sender in a reliable way by using an implicit acknowledgment and retransmission mechanism. The PN includes the sequence number of the TCP segment belonging to the flow that is currently at the head of its queue in the ERDN packet. The PN also attempts to find a new partial route to the TCP-BuS receiver, and the availability of such a partial path to destination is intimated to the TCP-BuS sender through an explicit route successful notification (ERSN) packet. TCP-BuS utilizes the route reconfiguration mechanism of ABR to obtain the partial route to the destination. Due to this, other routing protocols may require changes to support TCP-BuS. The LQ and REPLY messages are modified to carry TCP segment information, including the last successfully received segment at the destination. The LQ packet carries the sequence number of the segment at the head of the queue buffered at the PN and the REPLY carries the sequence number of the last successful segment the TCP-BuS receiver received. This enables the TCP-BuS receiver to understand the packets lost in transition and those buffered at the intermediate nodes. This is used to avoid fast retransmission requests usually generated by the TCP-BuS receiver when it notices an out-of-order packet delivery. Upon a successful LQ-REPLY process to obtain a new route to the TCP-BuS receiver, PN informs the TCP-BuS sender of the new partial path using the ERSN packet. When the TCP-BuS sender receives an ERSN packet, it resumes the data transmission.

Since there is a chance for ERSN packet loss due to congestion in the network, it needs to be sent reliably. The TCP-BuS sender also periodically originates probe packets to check the availability of a path to the destination. Figure 9.7 shows an illustration of the propagation of ERDN and RN messages when a link between nodes 4 and 12 fails.

09fig07.gifFigure 9.7 Operation of TCP-BuS.

When a TCP-BuS sender receives the ERSN message, it understands, from the sequence number of the last successfully received packet at the destination and the sequence number of the packet at the head of the queue at PN, the packets lost in transition. The TCP-BuS receiver understands that the lost packets will be delayed further and hence uses a selective acknowledgment strategy instead of fast retransmission. These lost packets are retransmitted by the TCP-BuS sender. During the retransmission of these lost packets, the network congestion between the TCP-BuS sender and PN is handled in a way similar to that in traditional TCP.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The advantages of TCP-BuS include performance improvement and avoidance of fast retransmission due to the use of buffering, sequence numbering, and selective acknowledgment. TCP-BuS also takes advantage of the underlying routing protocols, especially the on-demand routing protocols such as ABR. The disadvantages of TCP-BuS include the increased dependency on the routing protocol and the buffering at the intermediate nodes. The failure of intermediate nodes that buffer the packets may lead to loss of packets and performance degradation. The dependency of TCP-BuS on the routing protocol may degrade its performance with other routing protocols that do not have similar control messages as in ABR.

9.5.6 Ad Hoc TCP

Similar to TCP-F and TCP-ELFN, ad hoc TCP (ATCP) [12] also uses a network layer feedback mechanism to make the TCP sender aware of the status of the network path over which the TCP packets are propagated. Based on the feedback information received from the intermediate nodes, the TCP sender changes its state to the persist state, congestion control state, or the retransmit state. When an intermediate node finds that the network is partitioned, then the TCP sender state is changed to the persist state where it avoids unnecessary retransmissions. When ATCP puts TCP in the persist state, it sets TCP's congestion window size to one in order to ensure that TCP does not continue using the old congestion window value. This forces TCP to probe the correct value of the congestion window to be used for the new route. If an intermediate node loses a packet due to error, then the ATCP at the TCP sender immediately retransmits it without invoking the congestion control algorithm. In order to be compatible with widely deployed TCP-based networks, ATCP provides this feature without modifying the traditional TCP. ATCP is implemented as a thin layer residing between the IP and TCP protocols. The ATCP layer essentially makes use of the explicit congestion notification (ECN) for maintenance of the states.

Figure 9.8 (a) shows the thin layer implementation of ATCP between the traditional TCP layer and the IP layer. This does not require changes in the existing TCP protocol. This layer is active only at the TCP sender. The major function of the ATCP layer is to monitor the packets sent and received by the TCP sender, the state of the TCP sender, and the state of the network. Figure 9.8 (b) shows the state transition diagram for the ATCP at the TCP sender. The four states in the ATCP are (i) NORMAL, (ii) CONGESTED, (iii) LOSS, and (iv) DISCONN. When a TCP connection is established, the ATCP sender state is in NORMAL. In this state, ATCP does not interfere with the operation of TCP and it remains invisible.

09fig08.gifFigure 9.8 An illustration of ATCP thin layer and ATCP state diagram.

When packets are lost or arrive out-of-order at the destination, it generates duplicate ACKs. In traditional TCP, upon reception of duplicate ACKs, the TCP sender retransmits the segment under consideration and shrinks the contention window. But the ATCP sender counts the number of duplicate ACKs received and if it reaches three, instead of forwarding the duplicate ACKs to TCP, it puts TCP in the persist state and ATCP in the LOSS state. Hence, the TCP sender avoids invoking congestion control. In the LOSS state, ATCP retransmits the unacknowledged segments from the TCP buffer. When a new ACK comes from the TCP receiver, it is forwarded to TCP and the TCP sender is removed from the persist state and then the ATCP sender changes to the NORMAL state.

When the ATCP sender is in the LOSS state, the receipt of an ECN message or an ICMP source quench message changes it to the CONGESTED state. Along with this state transition, the ATCP sender removes the TCP sender from the persist state. When the network gets congested, the ECN [4] flag is set in the data and the ACK packets. When the ATCP sender receives this ECN message in the normal state, it changes to the CONGESTED state and just remains invisible, permitting TCP to invoke normal congestion control mechanisms. When a route failure or a transient network partition occurs in the network, ATCP expects the network layer to detect these and inform the ATCP sender through an ICMP destination unreachable (DUR) message. Upon reception of the DUR message, ATCP puts the TCP sender into the persist state and enters into the DISCONN state. It remains in the DISCONN state until it is connected and receives any data or duplicate ACKs. On the occurrence of any of these events, ATCP changes to the NORMAL state. The connected status of the path can be detected by the acknowledgments for the periodic probe packets generated by the TCP sender. The receipt of an ICMP DUR message in the LOSS state or the CONGESTED state causes a transition to the DISCONN state. When ATCP puts TCP into the persist state, it sets the congestion window to one segment in order to make TCP probe for the new congestion window when the new route is available. In summary, ATCP tries to perform the activities listed in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1. The actions taken by ATCP



Packet loss due to high BER

Retransmits the lost packets without reducing congestion window

Route recomputation delay

Makes the TCP sender go to persist state and stop transmission until new route has been found

Transient partitions

Makes the TCP sender go to persist state and stop transmission until new route has been found

Out-of-order packet delivery due to multipath routing

Maintains TCP sender unaware of this and retransmits the packets from TCP buffer

Change in route

Recomputes the congestion window

Advantages and Disadvantages

Two major advantages of ATCP are (i) it maintains the end-to-end semantics of TCP and (ii) it is compatible with traditional TCP. These advantages permit ATCP to work seamlessly with the Internet. In addition, ATCP provides a feasible and efficient solution to improve throughput of TCP in ad hoc wireless networks. The disadvantages of ATCP include (i) the dependency on the network layer protocol to detect the route changes and partitions, which not all routing protocols may implement and (ii) the addition of a thin ATCP layer to the TCP/IP protocol stack that requires changes in the interface functions currently being used.

9.5.7 Split TCP

One of the major issues that affects the performance of TCP over ad hoc wireless networks is the degradation of throughput with increasing path length, as discussed early in this chapter. The short (i. e., in terms of path length) connections generally obtain much higher throughput than long connections. This can also lead to unfairness among TCP sessions, where one session may obtain much higher throughput than other sessions. This unfairness problem is further worsened by the use of MAC protocols such as IEEE 802.11, which are found to give a higher throughput for certain link-level sessions, leading to an effect known as channel capture effect. This effect leads to certain flows capturing the channel for longer time durations, thereby reducing throughput for other flows. The channel capture effect can also lead to low overall system throughput. The reader can refer to Chapter 6 for more details on MAC protocols and throughput fairness.

Split-TCP [13] provides a unique solution to this problem by splitting the transport layer objectives into congestion control and end-to-end reliability. The congestion control is mostly a local phenomenon due to the result of high contention and high traffic load in a local region. In the ad hoc wireless network environment, this demands local solutions. At the same time, reliability is an end-to-end requirement and needs end-to-end acknowledgments.

In addition to splitting the congestion control and reliability objectives, split-TCP splits a long TCP connection into a set of short concatenated TCP connections (called segments or zones) with a number of selected intermediate nodes (known as proxy nodes) as terminating points of these short connections. Figure 9.9 illustrates the operation of split-TCP where a three segment split-TCP connection exists between source node 1 and destination node 15. A proxy node receives the TCP packets, reads its contents, stores it in its local buffer, and sends an acknowledgment to the source (or the previous proxy). This acknowledgment called local acknowledgment (LACK) does not guarantee end-to-end delivery. The responsibility of further delivery of packets is assigned to the proxy node. A proxy node clears a buffered packet once it receives LACK from the immediate successor proxy node for that packet. Split-TCP maintains the end-to-end acknowledgment mechanism intact, irrespective of the addition of zone-wise LACKs. The source node clears the buffered packets only after receiving the end-to-end acknowledgment for those packets.

09fig09.gifFigure 9.9 An illustration of Split-TCP.

In Figure 9.9, node 1 initiates a TCP session to node 15. Node 4 and node 13 are chosen as proxy nodes. The number of proxy nodes in a TCP session is determined by the length of the path between source and destination nodes. Based on a distributed algorithm, the intermediate nodes that receive TCP packets determine whether to act as a proxy node or just as a simple forwarding node. The most simple algorithm makes the decision for acting as proxy node if the packet has already traversed more than a predetermined number of hops from the last proxy node or the sender of the TCP session. In Figure 9.9, the path between node 1 and node 4 is the first zone (segment), the path between nodes 4 and 13 is the second zone (segment), and the last zone is between node 13 and 15.

The proxy node 4, upon receipt of each TCP packet from source node 1, acknowledges it with a LACK packet, and buffers the received packets. This buffered packet is forwarded to the next proxy node (in this case, node 13) at a transmission rate proportional to the arrival of LACKs from the next proxy node or destination. The transmission control window at the TCP sender is also split into two windows, that is, the congestion window and the end-to-end window. The congestion window changes according to the rate of arrival of LACKs from the next proxy node and the end-to-end window is updated based on the arrival of end-to-end ACKs. Both these windows are updated as per traditional TCP except that the congestion window should stay within the end-to-end window. In addition to these transmission windows at the TCP sender, every proxy node maintains a congestion window that governs the segment level transmission rate.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Split-TCP has the following advantages: (i) improved throughput, (ii) improved throughput fairness, and (iii) lessened impact of mobility. Throughput improvement is due to the reduction in the effective transmission path length (number of hops in a zone or a path segment). TCP throughput degrades with increasing path length. Split-TCP has shorter concatenated path segments, each operating at its own transmission rate, and hence the throughput is increased. This also leads to improved throughput fairness in the system. Since in split-TCP, the path segment length can be shorter than the end-to-end path length, the effect of mobility on throughput is lessened.

The disadvantages of split-TCP can be listed as follows: (i) It requires modifications to TCP protocol, (ii) the end-to-end connection handling of traditional TCP is violated, and (iii) the failure of proxy nodes can lead to throughput degradation. The traditional TCP has end-to-end semantics, where the intermediate nodes do not process TCP packets, whereas in split-TCP, the intermediate nodes need to process the TCP packets and hence, in addition to the loss of end-to-end semantics, certain security schemes that require IP payload encryption cannot be used. During frequent path breaks or during frequent node failures, the performance of split-TCP may be affected.

9.5.8 A Comparison of TCP Solutions for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Table 9.2 compares how various issues are handled in the TCP extensions discussed so far in this chapter.

Table 9.2. A comparison of TCP solutions for ad hoc wireless networks







Packet loss due to BER or collision

Same as TCP

Same as TCP

Same as TCP

Retransmits the lost packets without involing congestion control

Same as TCP

Path breaks

RFN is sent to the TCP sender and state changes to snooze

ELFN is sent to the TCP sender and state changes to standby

ERDN is sent to the TCP sender, state changes to snooze, ICMP DUR is sent to the TCP sender, and ATCP puts TCP into persist state

Same as TCP

Same as TCP

Out-of-order packets

Same as TCP

Same as TCP

Out-of-order packets reached after a path recovery are handled

ATCP reorders packets and hence TCP avoids sending duplicates

Same as TCP


Same as TCP

Same as TCP

Explicit messages such as ICMP source quench are used

ECN is used to notify TCP sender. Congestion control is same as TCP

Since connection is split, the congestion control is handled within a zone by proxy nodes

Congestion window after path reestablishment

Same as before the path break

Same as before the path break

Same as before the path break

Recomputed for new route

Proxy nodes maintain congestion window and handle congestion

Explicit path break notification






Explicit path reestablishment notification






Dependency on routing protocol






End-to-end semantics






Packets buffered at intermediate nodes






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