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1.6 Modeling Single Systems with UML

Object-oriented concepts are considered important in software reuse and evolution because they address fundamental issues of adaptation and evolution. Object-oriented methods are based on the concepts of information hiding, classes, and inheritance. Information hiding can lead to systems that are more self-contained and hence are more modifiable and maintainable. Inheritance provides an approach for adapting a class in a systematic way.

With the proliferation of notations and methods for the object-oriented analysis and design of software applications, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) was developed to provide a standardized notation for describing object-oriented models. For the UML notation to be applied effectively, however, it needs to be used together with an object-oriented analysis and design method.

Modern object-oriented analysis and design methods are model-based and use a combination of use case modeling, static modeling, state machine modeling, and object interaction modeling. Almost all modern object-oriented methods use the UML notation for describing software requirements, analysis, and design models (Booch et al. 2005; Fowler 2004; Rumbaugh et al. 2005).

In use case modeling, the functional requirements of the system are defined in terms of use cases and actors. Static modeling provides a structural view of the system. Classes are defined in terms of their attributes, as well as their relationships with other classes. Dynamic modeling provides a behavioral view of the system. The use cases are realized to show the interaction among participating objects. Object interaction diagrams are developed to show how objects communicate with each other to realize the use case. The state-dependent aspects of the system are defined with statecharts.

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