Home > Articles > Operating Systems, Server > Solaris

Like this article? We recommend

Deployment Scenario

IPsec can secure all of the traffic between two systems, between specific ports, or between specific boxes. The traffic can be bypassed (that is, it is not encrypted) or dropped. SSL secures traffic mainly between client and server application components.

In the following deployment example, an iPlanet™ web proxy server is deployed outside the internal firewall. The proxy server uses an iPlanet LDAP server to authenticate users. The user ID and password information are transmitted without encryption. Therefore, someone inside the enterprise could snoop the traffic for passwords. In addition, the version of the proxy server cannot communicate over SSL to LDAP.

A servlet or JavaServer Pages software is deployed on a web container using Java™ Database Connectivity ("JDC™") software to communicate to an RDBMS server on a different machine. The traffic between the web container box and the RDBMS server box needs to be secure.

IPsec Configuration

The IPsec configuration required for the deployment example involves setting up an IPsec policy file and the keys for encryption and creating cryptographic hashes. This section contains procedures to set up the policy file and keys, to create the hashes, to test the setup, to enable it, and to check the status of the network traffic.

The examples in this section are shown using DES encryption. It is recommended to use 3DES, AES, or Blowfish. The availability of these encryption algorithms could be different on different versions of the operating system.

To Set Up the IPsec Policy File

The ipsecconf(1M) utility (/usr/sbin/ipsecconf) configures the IPsec policy file for a host. After the policy is configured, all inbound and outbound datagrams are subject to policy checks. If no entry is found, no policy check will be completed, and all of the traffic will pass through. The policy is configured in the /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf file. Each entry protects traffic in one direction. For details on the syntax of the entries, refer to ipsecconf(1M). A sample policy file, /etc/inet/ipsecinit.sample, is available in the Solaris OS.

  1. Copy and rename the ipsecinit.sample file to /etc/init/ipsecinit.conf.

  2. Edit the file to add your requirements.

  3. The following is a sample entry in the policy file.

    {dport 23} apply {encr_algs des encr_auth_algs md5 sa shared}
    {sport 23} permit {encr_algs des encr_auth_algs md5}

    The above entry secures telnet(1) traffic (port 23) with DES encryption and MD5 for hash. The first entry applies to the outbound traffic to be encrypted with DES. The second entry applies to the inbound traffic.

  4. Load the policy file by typing:

  5. $ ipsecconf -a /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf

    The policy file needs to be set up on both systems. The manual key file is identical on both machines—only the policy differs (that is, source and destination entries).

IPsec Keys

In an IPsec deployment for a financial company, the /usr/sbin/ipseckey command was used to set up manual key information for the communicating hosts.

The Solaris 8 OS does not provide automated key management. The Solaris 9 OS provides IKE-based key management. When creating keys, take care to provide the proper key length. For example, DES requires a 64-bit key, and 3DES requires a 192-bit key. MD5 requires a 128-bit key, and SHA-1 requires a 160-bit key. When you translate these into, for example, hex digits, 3DES would have 48-hex digits and SHA-1 would have 50 digits.

For the Solaris 8 OS, you can use the output from an od -x < /dev/random command to generate random digits and to get as many numbers as are required by the encryption, hashing algorithm. The following is sample random output.

# od -x </dev/random | head -4
0000000 89e9 f7d5 d1da 3a51 7805 44fb 6b44 e442
0000020 fbb8 ffd4 4835 58c6 10b2 cd35 a783 68ed
0000040 d726 15ff 22f1 32d3 e2ae 72a0 f847 ee17
0000060 f13d 8dfb 0539 cc41 4871 d40a cd43 7814

A sample key file consists of the following code.

add esp spi 1135 src 100.27.364.17 dst auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012
add esp spi 1138 src dst 100.27.364.17 auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012

The first entry adds ESP as the IPsec protocol (AH is the other option) between two systems with IP addresses 100.27.364.17 and The hash algorithm is SHA-1, and the encryption algorithm is 3DES. You can observe 40 digits in authkey (that is, 160 bits for SHA-1) and 48 digits in encrkey (that is, 192 bits for 3DES). The security parameter index (SPI) number is 1135. This is an arbitrary number. The SPI number should match between the two systems. For detailed syntax of the policy file, refer to ipseckey(1M).

Load the keys with the following command. Provide the correct path name for the keyfile with the -f argument.

# ipseckey -f keyfile.myhost

Sample IPsec Configuration

This section contains a sample IPsec configuration between and to encrypt LDAP traffic, but to bypass HTTP traffic.

The following is the policy file in

{sport 8080} bypass {dir out}
{dport 8080} bypass {dir in}
{daddr sport 389} apply {encr_algs 3DES encr_auth_algs
sha1 sa shared}
{saddr dport 389} permit {encr_algs 3DES
encr_auth_algs sha1}

The following is the key file in

add esp spi 1135 src dst auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012
add esp spi 1138 src dst auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012

The following is the policy file in

{sport 8080} bypass {dir in}
{dport 8080} bypass {dir out}
{daddr dport 389} apply {encr_algs 3DES
encr_auth_algs sha1 sa shared}
{saddr sport 389} permit {encr_algs 3DES
encr_auth_algs sha1

The following is the key file in

add esp spi 1135 src dst auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012
add esp spi 1138 src dst auth_alg sha1
authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad0123456 encr_alg 3des
encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb4057210346122e1f283cb644d2c88012

To Sanity Test IPsec

  1. Capture snoop(1M) output between the two systems before IPsec is enabled, as in:

  2. # snoop -v -o snoop.out fromsystem tosystem
  3. Use the application (for example, the proxy authenticating to LDAP).

To Enable IPsec

  1. Capture snoop(1M) output between the two systems after IPsec is enabled, as in:

  2. # snoop -v -o snoop.out fromsystem tosystem
  3. Use the application.

  4. You should observe the ESP packets in the post IPsec traffic. The snoop(1M) output should be similar to the following.

    ESP: ----- Encapsulating Security Payload -----
    ESP: SPI = 0xa8dccd8e
    ESP: Replay = 9
    ESP:   ....ENCRYPTED DATA....

    This example shows that the packets are encrypted and that there is no plain text data.

    The following command can be used for status reports.

    # ndd /dev/ipsecesp ipsecesp_status
    ESP status
    Authentication algorithms      =  2
    Encryption Algorithms        =  3
    Packets passing authentication   =  0
    Packets failing authentication   =  0
    Packets apparently decrypting badly =  0
    Packets failing replay checks    =  0
    Packets failing early replay checks =  0
    Failed inbound SA lookups      =  80
    Inbound PF_KEY messages       =  12
    Inbound ESP packets         =  80
    Outbound ESP requests        =  78
    PF_KEY ACQUIRE messages       =  23
    Expired associations (# of bytes)  =  0
    Discarded inbound packets      =  80

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020