Home > Articles > Web Services > XML

This chapter is from the book

1.4 Patterns in XML

In order to effectively model information using XML, we must learn how to identify the natural patterns inherent to it. First, we must determine whether we have used XML elements properly. To do this we will analyze the XML fragment shown in Listing 1.2.

Listing 1.2 Example XML Fragment

     <device> X-Rite Digital Swatchbook </device>
     <patch> cyan </patch>
     <RGB resolution=8>
            <red> 0 </red>
            <green> 255 </green>
            <blue> 255 </blue>

We examine each data element and ask the following question:

  • Is this data, or is it actually metadata (information about another data element)?

We examine every attribute and ask the following questions:

  • Does the attribute tell us something about or describe how to interpret, use, or present data elements?

  • Is the attribute truly metadata, and not actually a data element?

  • Does it apply to all data elements in its scope?

We examine every tag and ask the following question:

  • Does this tag help describe what all data elements in its scope are?

We examine the groupings we have created (the sibling relationships) and ask:

  • Are all members of the group related in a way the parent nodes describe?

  • Is the relationship between siblings unambiguous?

If the answer to any of the preceding questions is "no," then we need to cast the offending components differently.

After insuring that information has been expressed using the components of XML appropriately, we examine how everything has been stitched together. To do this we create an information context list from the XML fragment. This is done by simply taking each data element and writing down every tag and attribute leading up to it. The resulting lines will give us a flattened view of the information items contained in the XML fragment. A context list for the example XML fragment in Listing 1.2 would look like the one shown in Listing 1.3.

Listing 1.3 Context List for Example XML Fragment

<colorimeter_reading><device> X-Rite Digital Swatchbook
<colorimeter_reading><patch> cyan
<colorimeter_reading><RGB resolution=8><red> 0
<colorimeter_reading><RGB resolution=8><green> 255
<colorimeter_reading><RGB resolution=8><blue> 255

If we convert these lines to what they mean in English, we can see that each information item, and its context, makes sense and is contextually complete:

  1. This colorimeter reading is from an X-Rite Digital Swatchbook.

  2. This colorimeter reading is for a patch called cyan.

  3. This colorimeter reading is RGB-red and has an 8-bit value of 0.

  4. This colorimeter reading is RGB-green and has an 8-bit value of 255.

  5. This colorimeter reading is RGB-blue and has an 8-bit value of 255.

Next we examine the groupings implied by the tag hierarchy:

  • "-colorimeter_reading-" contains "-device-", "-patch-", and "-RGB-" (plus its children).

  • "-RGB-" contains "-red-", "-green-", and "-blue-".

"-colorimeter_reading-" represents the root tag, so everything else is obviously related to it. The only other implied grouping falls under "-RGB-". These are the actual readings, and the only entries that are, so they are logically related in an unambiguous way.

Finally, we examine the scope for each attribute:

  • "resolution-8" has the items "-red-", "-green-", and "-blue-" in its scope.

"resolution-8" logically applies to every item in its scope and none of the items not in its scope, so it has been appropriately applied.

A self-constructing XML information system (like NeoCore XMS) will use the structure of and the natural patterns contained in XML to automatically determine what to index. Simple queries are serviced by direct lookups. Complex queries are serviced by a combination of direct lookups, convergences against selected parent nodes, and targeted substring searches. With NeoCore XMS no database design or indexing instructions are necessary—the behavior of XMS is driven entirely by the structure of the XML documents posted to it. Index entries are determined by inference and are built based on the natural patterns contained in XML documents. NeoCore XMS creates index entries according to the following rules:

  • An index entry is created for each data element.

  • An index entry is created for each complete tag context for each data element —that is, the concatenation of every tag leading up to the data element.

  • An index entry is created for the concatenation of the two preceding items (tag context plus data element).

For the XML fragment in Listing 1.2, the following items would be added to the pattern indices (actually, this list is not complete because partial tag context index entries are also created, but a discussion of those is beyond the scope of this chapter):

  1. X-Rite Digital Swatchbook

  2. cyan

  3. 0 Common XML Information-Modeling Pitfalls

  4. 255

  5. 255

  6. <colorimeter_reading--device-

  7. <colorimeter_reading--patch-

  8. <colorimeter_reading--RGB--red-

  9. <colorimeter_reading--RGB--green-

  10. <colorimeter_reading--RGB--blue-

  11. <colorimeter_reading--RGB resolution-8-

  12. <colorimeter_reading--device- X-Rite Digital Swatchbook

  13. <colorimeter_reading--patch- cyan

  14. <colorimeter_reading--RGB resolution-8--red- 0

  15. <colorimeter_reading--RGB resolution-8--green- 255

  16. <colorimeter_reading--RGB resolution-8--blue- 255

Entries 1–5 are data only, entries 6–11 are tag context only, and entries 12–16 are both.

At this point it is important to consider how performance will be affected by the structure of the XML document. Because the inherent patterns inferred from the XML itself can be used to automatically build a database, the degree to which those patterns match likely queries will have a big effect on performance, especially in data-centric applications where single data elements or subdocuments need to be accessed without having to process an entire XML document.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020