Adversarial Customer/Developer Relationships
Traditionally projects were (in most cases still are) a fixed-price, fixed-deliverable agreement based on an initial estimate of the overall work involved. However, the chances of developers being able to guess the costs of a project accurately were minimal, and the challenge was to make the project fit the estimate. This could only result in an adversarial relationship, in which the customer consistently took the widest interpretation of what was included and the developer responded with the narrowest, with both sides taking contrary positions on the expected deliverables. The inevitable changes to the project often caused bitter fights.
Figure 2 Customers and developers may come to "blows" about expected deliverables.