Home > Articles

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Federated Forests Design Model

A new feature of Windows .NET Server 2003's Active Directory implementation is the addition of cross-forest transitive trusts. In essence, this allows you to establish transitive trusts between two forests with completely separate schemas that allow users between the forests to share information and to authenticate users.

The ability to perform cross-forest trusts and synchronization is not automatic, however, because the forest functionality of each forest must be brought up to Windows .NET functionality levels. What this means is that all domain controllers in each forest must first be upgraded to Windows .NET Server 2003 before any cross-forest trusts can be established. This can prove to be a difficult prospect for organizations already deployed with Windows 2000. Consequently, the federated forest design model is easier to consider if you do not currently have an Active Directory structure in place.

The federated forest design model is ideal for two different situations. One is to unite two disparate Active Directory structures in situations that arise from corporate acquisitions, mergers, and other forms of organizational restructuring. In these cases, two AD forests need to be linked to exchange information. For example, a corporate merger between two large organizations with fully populated Active Directory forests could take advantage of this capability and link their two environments, as shown in Figure 5.8, without the need for complex domain migration tools.

Figure 5.8Figure 5.8 Cross-forest trust between two completely different organizations needing to share resources.

In this example, users in both forests now can access information in each other's forests through the two-way cross-forest trust set up between each forest's root.

The second type of scenario in which this form of forest design could be chosen is one in which absolute security and ownership of IT structure are required by different divisions or subsidiaries within an organization, but exchange of information is also required. For example, an aeronautics organization could set up two AD forests, one for the civilian branch of its operations and one for the military branch. This would effectively segregate the two environments, giving each department complete control over its environment. A one- or two-way cross-forest trust could then be set up to exchange and synchronize information between the two forests so as to facilitate communication exchange.

In Figure 5.9, a one-way cross-forest trust was set up between the civilian branch and the military branch of the sample aeronautics organization. In this example, this setup would allow only accounts from the military branch to be trusted in the civilian branch, in essence giving the military branch users the ability to access files in both forests. As with NT domains, cross-forest trusts are one way by default. Unlike NT and 2000 trusts, however, cross-forest trusts in Windows .NET Server 2003 are transitive. To set up two-way transitive trusts, you must establish two one-way trusts between the two forest roots.

Figure 5.9Figure 5.9 One-way cross-forest trust.

When to Choose Federated Forests

The concept of federated forests greatly enhances the abilities of Active Directory forests to exchange information with other environments. In addition, organizations that were reluctant to implement AD because of the lack of a solid security boundary between domains can now take heart in the ability of the federated forest design to allow specific departments or areas to have complete control over their own forests, while allowing for the transfer of information between the domains.

Real-World Design Example

To illustrate a good example of an organization that would choose a federated forest design model, let's consider fictional Conglomerate A, which is a food distributor with multiple sites worldwide. It currently operates a Windows .NET Server 2003 Active Directory implementation across its entire organization. All computers are members of the forest with a namespace of companyb.net. A root domain exists for conglomeratea.net, but it is not populated because all users exist in one of three subdomains: asia, europe, and na.

Conglomerate A has recently entered into a joint venture with Supplier A and would like to facilitate the sharing of information between the two companies and to exchange common address books. Supplier A also currently operates in a Windows .NET Active Directory environment and keeps all user and computer accounts in an Active Directory forest that is composed of two domains in the suppliera.com namespace and a separate tree with a DNS namespace of supplierabranch.org that reflects a certain function of one of its branches.

The decision was made to create a cross-forest trust between the two forests so that creden-tials from one forest are trusted by the other forest and information can be exchanged. The cross-forest trust was put into place between the root domains in each forest, as shown in Figure 5.10.

Figure 5.10Figure 5.10 Cross-forest trust between root domains in each forest.

Remember, that just as in NT 4.0, a trust does not automatically grant any permissions in other domains or forests; it simply allows for resources to be implicitly shared. Administrators from the trusting domain still need to manually grant access. In our example, administrators in both forests can decide what resources will be shared and can configure their environment as such.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020