Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Search Strategies

Once you have identified major themes, you can use them as sources of inspiration. Make educated guesses about the kinds of inventions that you will need based on the nature of your application and the things that are critical to it. Candidates generally represent the following:

  • The work your system performs

  • Things directly affected by or connected to the application (other software, physical machinery, hardware devices)

  • Information that flows through your software

  • Decision making, control, and coordination activities

  • Structures and groups of objects

  • Representations of real-world things the application needs to know something about

We guide our search from these perspectives. The kinds of inventions we seek are closely related to the role stereotypes.

If an application’s central mission boils down to computation, look to populate it with objects playing the role of service providers that calculate, compute, transform, and figure. You will likely invent objects that represent algorithms or operations along with objects that control work processes. If your application’s major activity is to assemble and move information from one place to another, identify candidates that model this information as objects along with others to coordinate their movement. If your application connects with other systems, invent external interfacers that form these connections. Most designs need objects that control or coordinate the work of others. Depending on the complexity of the control, this design decision may or may not be a prominent one. If your application needs to sort through, organize, and make connections between related objects, structurers need to be identified. There are relatively direct links between the kinds of objects you look for and the nature of the work your software carries out.

The best way to evaluate potential candidates that represent external things is to shift perspective. Climb into your software and look out at the world. Take your application’s viewpoint. Ask what you need to know about your users, the systems you connect to, and things out there that you affect.

As you look for candidates one question to ask is, “How much does our software need to know about things in the external and virtual worlds it is connected to?” At the borders, model connections to other systems as interfacer objects. You may include in your design objects that represent these other software systems. These service providers will be called upon by other parts of the application. But when should you model things that are outside a computer, such as your software’s users? If it is only their actions that matter and not whom they are, leave them out of the design. Users’ actions can be conveyed via user interface objects (objects charged with translating user requests and information to other parts of the system). There is no need to know who is pushing your application’s buttons! On the other hand, if whom users are makes your software behave differently, include some representation of them as a candidate. Some knowledge of its users (and objects to represent that knowledge) is needed if your software bases any decisions on whom it interacts with. For example, if different users have different access rights to accounts or if the ability to resume a game requires knowledge of whom the players are, then some representation of these users should be part of the design.

Tables 3-1 and 3-2 outline our search strategies for our two applications. Although we consider each perspective, typically only one or two are relevant to any particular theme. If we find that a particular perspective does not yield any insights, we move on. For each theme, we briefly summarize the perspectives that yielded insights and the kinds of candidates we are looking for.

Table 3-1. The initial search for online banking application candidates is based on exploring four themes.

Theme Perspective Candidates That Specifically Support...
Online banking functions The work our system performs Performing financial transactions, querying accounts
  Things our software affects Accounts, backend banking system transactions
  Information that flows through our software Information about transactions, account balances, transaction amounts, account history, payments
  Representations of real-world things Customers, users, and the accounts they access
Flexibly configuring behavior Things our software affects A common interface to backend systems
  Information that flows through our software Configurable display of Web page banners, text, messages, and account formats
Sharing scarce resources Structures and groups of objects Managing limited connections to backend systems and our online banking application database
Different views of and access to accounts The work our system performs Restricting users’ views of and ability to perform banking transactions that modify account balances
  Decision making, coordination, and control Prohibiting access to accounts unless user has specific privileges

Table 3-2. The initial search for Kriegspiel application candidates is based on the themes of game modeling, intelligent computerized game playing, and distributed games.

Theme Perspective Candidates That Specifically Support...
Game modeling The work our system performs Assigning players to games, refereeing, storing and resuming suspended games, playing a game, determining the legality of a move, determining the outcome of a move, displaying the state of each player’s board
  Information that flows through our software Information about moves and player requests
  Representations of real-world things Players and their actions
  Structures and groups of objects Managing saved games, the various games, game pieces, and their locations on a game board
Computer playing a game The work our system performs Playing a game with a user
  Decision making, control, and coordination Determining a reasonable move to make based on the current view of the game (which should be just as limited as any human player’s view)
Partitioning responsibilities across distributed components Decision making, control, and coordination Communicating a player request to the referee and game state between players, detecting whether a player is still connected
  Information that flows through our software Player moves, updated boards, and game state

We will identify candidates that support the relevant perspectives. Sometimes candidates leap right out of the page from our brief descriptions; are Player and PlayerAction good candidates based on the fact that we need to have candidates that support our game’s real-world view of “players and their actions”? Highly likely. At other times, we must speculate about exactly how our software might work in order to come up with candidates; perhaps there should be a BankingServicesConnectionManager that manages BankingServicesConnections or a DatabaseConnectionManager to manage DatabaseConnections that are scarce resources? Often, different themes and perspectives reiterate and reinforce the need for certain kinds of candidates. This is good. It builds confidence in the relevance a particular candidate has to our application. At other times, ideas do not come so quickly, and we must think more deeply to come up with potential candidates.

We won’t find all the key candidates in this first pass; nor will our initial ideas about our candidates remain fixed. Our notions change as we give candidates further definition. The initial candidates that we come up with will seed our design. So it is particularly important to give each candidate a strong name that suggests its role and purpose. So before we continue searching for candidates, let’s explore what it takes to find useful names.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020