Home > Articles > Operating Systems, Server > Microsoft Servers

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Namespaces

The purpose of a namespace is to group a set of classes and instances that relate to a particular managed environment logically. The CIMV2 namespace, for example, groups a set of classes and instances that relate to aspects of the local Windows environment. This philosophy would not support defining a network router (its classes, and so forth) within the CIMV2 namespace. It would be logical instead to define a router in the CIM repository by creating a new namespace and populating it with the relevant router classes. To combine instances from both local and nonlocal elements in the same namespace could lead to confusion, because there is no immediate way to distinguish between the two. Placing them in separate namespaces further clarifies the distinction between the nonlocal router's management environment and the local Windows host. If, however, you were defining the manageable aspects of a local internal modem, then it would be most likely that you would place your classes in the CIMV2 namespace. The CIMV2 namespace derives its name from the DMTF's CIM schema that is the basis of its classes.

Using the CIMV2 Namespace

Table 4.2 lists an array of hardware- and software-managed objects that you might find in the enterprise. The purpose of the table is to illustrate which devices most likely

Table 4.2 Likely Management Object Locations

Device

Location

Description

Namespace

Network card

Local

Network card residing on host machine.

CIMV2

External modem

Local

56K modem attached to COM1.

CIMV2

Custom designed software application

Local

Simple standalone application that runs on Windows 2000, NT4, and 9x.

CIMV2

Distributed database application

Distributed, Machine A, n

A distributed database with error-recovery and data integrity/fault tolerance built in.

Requires a separate namespace because the CIMV2 namespace does not accommodate distributed applications.

Fax gateway software application

Local

Located on host machine. Runs under Windows. Allows other users on network to send faxes using host machine's fax card.

CIMV2

E-mail gateway

Remote

Located remotely on network. Transmits all external email onto the PSTN.

A separate namespace is required as the CIMV2 namespace merely represents the local managed environment.

Network card

Local

Located on host machine. Instrumented using the DMTF's DMI management architecture.

A separate namespace is required as this object does not use or derive from the CIM schema or object definitions.*

Smart Array SCSI controller card*

Local

Controls a RAID 5 array of hard disk using the SNMP protocol.

A separate namespace is required as this object does not use or derive from the CIM schema or object definitions.*


should appear in the CIMV2 namespace and which should be placed elsewhere. With a technology as complex as WMI, there is always a danger of over-simplifying the issues. For instance, in text we have ignored the fact that a managed object can appear in multiple namespaces in the same CIM repository, but the table shows when it is and is not appropriate to use the CIMV2 namespace. The Location field states where the device is located, either on the local host machine, or on another machine on the network.

The DMTF specifies the following points as valid criteria for defining a namespace:

  • To define chunks of management information (objects and associations) to limit implementation resource requirements, such as database size

  • To define views on the model for applications managing only specific objects, such as hubs

  • To pre-structure groups of objects for optimized query speed

  • WMI Namespaces and the CIM repository

In a typical WMI installation, you will find a number of namespaces defined in the CIM repository. The exact number of namespaces will depend largely upon the version of your operating system and the applications or hardware on your machine. Figure 4.4 shows an example of the namespaces found on an installation of Windows XP.

Figure 4.4Figure 4.4 Example of namespaces found in a Windows XP installation


Table 4.3 Windows XP Namespaces

Namespace

Description

Root

The lowest level in the namespace hierarchy.

CIMV2

Defines the manageable aspects of the host system.

CIMV2\Applications

Defines miscellaneous application-specific data.

Cli

Defines the default WMIC aliases (Windows XP only).

Default

Default namespace (a good place to experiment with your own classes!).

Directory

Groups directory related namespaces.

Directory\LDAP

Defines management information for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

Microsoft

Groups Microsoft technologyÐspecific namespaces, for example, the HomeNet subnamespace on Windows XP, which defines the management information for home networking.

MSAPPS10

Defines class information for the Microsoft Office suite of applications.

NetFrameworkv1

Defines class information for the .NET framework (.NET must be installed on the computer for this to be present).

Perfmonscriptexample

Monitors performance of script-specific information.

Policy

Defines policy-specific management information.

RSOP

Defines resultant set of policy security-related classes for centralized policybased administration (Windows XP/.NET only).

SECURITY

Defines the WMI system security-related management information.

Subscription

Defines consumer-related classes for triggering scripts in response to an event and sending an e-mail (Windows XP/.NET only).

WMI

Defines management information for the WMI for WDM provider.

<namespace>\MS_XXX

Defines locale-specific information (e.g., MS_409 is the namespace that defines US English locale-specific information).

Table 4.3 provides a quick roundup of the namespaces found in a Windows XP

Defining and Using Your Own Namespace

By using your own namespace, you effectively rid yourself of a number of the constraints of populating a proprietary namespace, such as seeking permission from the owner of the namespace.

You also create potentially more work for yourself because you must define everything from the root up. As we see in Figure 4.5, the CIMV2 namespace contains a col

Figure 4.5Figure 4.5 Namespaces and the CIM repository


If you decide to create a new namespace to define the manageable aspects of your environment, you are not obliged to use or to derive from all (or any) of the classes defined in the CIM Schema or Win32 extended schema. Indeed, as the CIM repository currently stands, a number of namespaces populated by legacy schemas such as the SNMP and DMI exist. Schema designers are required to populate their namespaces only with classes and associations that are pertinent to the managed environment under scrutiny. If, however, you decide not to derive from any of the classes in the CIM schema, then you must question whether the object that you are defining belongs to the enterprise modeled within the CIM. Remember that the CIM schema models the most basic manageable aspects of the enterprise from which you can derive. (If you feel that a vital class that will enable you to instrument your product is missing within the CIM schema, then you are encouraged to e-mail the DMTF at cim@dmtf.org with a change request and open a channel of discussion with them. For the Win32 extended schema, e-mail Microsoft at wmgmts@microsoft.com.)

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020