Home > Articles > Data > SQL Server

  • Print
  • + Share This
Like this article? We recommend

Key Concepts and Terminology

To begin exploring MDX queries, we'll work with a PivotTable list to gain an appreciation for the concepts involved in limiting the values extracted from a cube to precisely defined levels of specific dimensions.

Quick review of the basic terminology: A cube is a multidimensional structure. The intersections of the dimensions are where data resides, in single or multiple elements called measures. MDX uses a reference system called tuples to identify and extract data, whether the data is in a single cell or a block of cells. Tuples list dimensions and their members (which include levels) to "address" individual cells, as well as sections of cells, within the cube. Because any given cell is an intersection of all the dimensions in the cube, tuples can uniquely identify every cell in the cube. (As a means of reference, measures themselves are treated as a special sort of dimension, named Measures.) Because tuples uniquely identify sections of the cube, based on the dimensional intersections that define each section's address, they don't need to refer to any specific cell or cells. They represent subsets of the multiple dimensions of the cube, and provide slices that encompass more than one cell.

Later in this article, we'll work with ordered groups of tuples, referred to as sets. Common examples of set usage include axis dimensions (the dimensions and members to be returned, used by the SELECT statement in the query) and slicer dimensions (the specific dimension and member criteria to which the returned data is restricted, used by the WHERE statement). The axis dimension returns data for multiple members; the slicer dimension returns data for a single member. The axis and slicer dimensions work in conjunction to define, in terms of the source cube (identified in the FROM clause of the query), the subset of dimensions that make up the result cube, which itself can be composed of multiple dimensions. Out of the potentially large number of possible values held at all the intersections within the cube, any report you want to produce contains only values from specific intersections, which you must define precisely.

We'll explore the components of a query statement in a largely visual environment, focusing on concepts rather than coding until you understand the basics. The visual environment will use MDX queries to extract data for reports, but in a way that will be less cumbersome from the perspective of a beginner. First, let's set up an empty Office PivotTable list connected to the Sales cube (one of the OLAP cube samples that are installed in the Typical installation of Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services).

We'll begin with a new, blank page in Microsoft FrontPage:

  1. Click Start, Programs, Microsoft FrontPage.

  2. Choose Insert, Component, Office PivotTable (see Figure 1).

    Figure 1Figure 1 Inserting an Office PivotTable in FrontPage.


    As Figure 2 shows, the result is an empty PivotTable list with no data source specified.

    Figure 2Figure 2 The empty PivotTable list.


  3. Click the Property Toolbox button on the PivotTable list toolbar to open the Property Toolbox.

  4. Expand the Data Source section and select Connection (see Figure 3).

    Figure 3Figure 3 The Data Source section of the Property Toolbox.


  5. Click the Connection Editor button.

    The Data Link Properties dialog box appears, displaying the Connection tab.

  6. Click the Provider tab and select Microsoft OLE DB Provider for OLAP Services 8.0 (see Figure 4).

    Figure 4Figure 4 The Provider tab of the Data Link Properties dialog box.


  7. Click Next to display the Connection tab of the Data Link Properties dialog box.

  8. Enter localhost as the data source (or use a specific server name, depending on the environment).

  9. Select FoodMart 2000 in box 3 (see Figure 5).

    Figure 5Figure 5 The Connection tab of the Data Link Properties dialog box.


  10. Click the Test Connection button to ascertain that the database (called a catalog) is connected (see Figure 6).

    Figure 6Figure 6 The test connection succeeded.

  11. Click OK twice to close the verification message box and then the Data Link Properties dialog box, returning to the PivotTable Property Toolbox.

  12. In the Data Member drop-down list, select Sales (see Figure 7).

    Figure 7Figure 7 The completed PivotTable Property Toolbox and the "map" for the new PivotTable.

  13. Close the PivotTable Property Toolbox.

  14. Click the Field List toolbar button (see Figure 8).

    Figure 8Figure 8 The Field List toolbar button initializes the PivotTable field list.


  15. From the PivotTable field list, drag the Store Sales field to the drop area marked Total or Detail Fields.

    The PivotTable list now displays a grand total for Store Sales, as shown in Figure 9.

    Figure 9Figure 9 The initial report: a grand total for store sales.

  16. Drag the Store Type, Store, Product, and Time dimensions to the filter area at the top of the "map," just under the PivotTable caption bar (see Figure 10).

    Figure 10Figure 10 The results are the same as in Figure 9, because we simply specified the default members.

  17. Click open the drop-down list in the Store Type dimension label, and select the Deluxe Supermarket member (see Figure 11).

    Figure 11Figure 11 Select the Deluxe Supermarket member in the drop-down list.


  18. Click OK to apply the filter to the report. Figure 12 shows the PivotTable list, now filtered to report on the Deluxe Supermarket store type.

    Figure 12Figure 12 The total for the Deluxe Supermarket store type.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020